60 CENTS. a

THE

HAWAIIAN GUIDE BOOK,

CONTAINING

A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS, THEIR HARBORS, AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES. PLANTATIONS, SCENERY, VOLCANOES, CLIMATE, POPULATION,

AND COMMERCE.

BY. ELEN AY ov. “VWeELICANE YS,

EDITOR OF THE HAWATIAN GAZETTE.

,

FIRST EDITION, 4,000 COPIES, /

HONOLULU, H. I. PUBLISHED BY HENRY M. WHITNEY,

WHITE & BAUER, WASHINGTON S8T., SAN FRANCISCO, 3ORDON & GOTCH, GHORGE ST., SYDNEY.

1875.

iJ

ay

THE

HAWAITAN GUIDE BOOK,

Prev RS"

CONTAINING

A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS, THEIR HARBORS, AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES, PLANTATIONS, SCENERY, VOLCANOKS, CLIMATE, POPULATION,

AND COMMERCE.

BY HENRY M. WHITNEY,

HDITOR OF THE HAWAIIAN GAZETTE,

Oe

FIRST EDITION.

HONOLULU, H. I, PUBLISHED BY HENRY M. WHITNEY,

1875.

a L-

PREFACE.

Iy issuing the first edition of this Hand Book, its author claims no special merit for originality. His object has been to present in it such information as travelers require in a hand-book of this descrip- tion, and at the same time to supply all the facts which intelligent settlers may wish to know. ‘The more interesting sketches of our scenery have therefore been necessarily curtailed. For a more full account of this group the reader is referred to Jarves’ History, which is recommended as the most impartial work on

the Islands that has been published. H, M. W.

Honoxvny, April, 1875.

¥ ON CNC NN aN akan’ a aes HAWAIIAN GAZETTE PRESS,

Hawanan Cuine Book.

Tue Hawaiian or Sandwich Islands lie in the North Pacific, stretching from latitude 19° to 23°, and from west longitude 155° to 161°, about 2080 miles from San Francisco and 4880 miles from China. The bell- tower, which is one of the most conspicuous objects in Honolulu, is in latitude 21° 18’ 23”, and longitude 157° 48’ 45’.* There are twelve islands in the group, eight of which are inhabited, and the area of the whole is six thousand square miles. Their names are Hawaii, Maui, Lanai, Kahoolawe, Molokai, Oahu, Kauai, and Nithau. Molokini, Lehua, Kaula and Bird Island are barren rocks. Recent surveys show that they are a chain of volcanic peaks rising abruptly from a depth of three miles below the ocean level to a hight three miles above, making the loftiest summits of Hawaii six miles above the bed of the Pacific Ocean. They possess the general attractive characteristics of the tropical Polyne- sian groups—that perfection of climate and most charm- ing scenery which suggest to the sea-worn traveler Para- dise and the Garden of Hden. As seen from the deck

* The spire of the Roman Catholic Church (near the bell-tower) is in N. Latitude 21° 18” 23/7, W. Longitude 157° 48/ 31/’, the mean of observations made by Prof, C. §. Lyman, Lieut. Fleuriais and Capt. Tupman. The Transit of Venus Observatory, (near the Stone Church,) has been located in WN. Latitude 21° 17’ 56’, W. Longitude 157° 48” 30/7, by Capt, Tupman.

4 HAWAIIAN GUIDE BOOK.

of a steamer gliding rapidly along their shores, no scenery can be more picturesque—their mountain tops enveloped in clouds, or perhaps in winter, wrap- ped in a mantle of snow; mountain slopes broken into enormous gulches, fern-clad, tree-clad, green with the richest summer foliage, and sparkling with numerous shining waterfalls and streamlets—they present the most delightful picture imaginable. Approaching nearer to the land, plantations of golden sugar-cane attract at- tention at one station; broad fields of velvety pasture- land, dotted with cattle, transform the solitariness of another into active life; while groups of cocoanut palms skirt the white coral shores, under whose shade may be discovered, with a glass, the primitive dwellings of the simple natives, themselves strolling on the beach, fish- ing in the sea, or sporting in the surf.

Vessels approaching Honolulu from the eastward, generally run along the windward shores of Mani and Molokai, and pass through the Oahu channel, not open- ing the harbor till abreast of Diamond Head. As soon as they are observed in the channel, often twenty-five miles from port, they are telegraphed by the watchman at the signal station on the ridge back of Diamond Head, so that the pilot meets them between the har- bor entrance and the above headland.

The approach to Honoluln, as the steamer passes, the remarkable promontory called Diamond Head, and opens to view the extensive cocoanut groves of Waikiki, its pretty cottages dotting the shore, the shipping and the city almost buried in foliage in the distance, with the lofty background of serrated mountains and near fore- ground of wind-combed, snow-crested breakers, curling

co 1 : H LA

HAWAIIAN GUIDE BOOR. 5

many miles to the westward, is exceedingly picturesque, and will never be forgotten by a stranger. The sudden change of the ocean color is a peculiar feature in this beautiful scene, the land rising so abruptly that the ocean retains its dark blue tint within a mile or less of the shore, and passes most rapidly through all shades of the marine spectrum. Nowhere around the group is a vessel approaching the land in the daytime in any danger until the breakers are plainly visible, when it is time to call a pilot or heave the lead. The depth of wa- ter in the channels between the islands is two miles.

The Honolulu roadstead, accessible at all times, and safe during most of the year, has good anchorage in from 13 to 18 fathoms. It is always safe except in-a Fone or South Storm, which rarely occurs except dur- ing the winter months, from December to March, The anchorage is designated by a buoy, about half a mile to windward, or south-east, of the entrance to the harbor: This buoy is in latitude 21° 16’ 56”, longitude 157° 49” ol”, and lies in 184 fathoms of water.

The channel, which ought never to be taken, even by a war vessel, without a pilot, is a narrow passage through the coral reef, averaging 550 feet in width, by three- quarters of a mile in length, from the spar-buoy to the light-house. This light may be seen from a steamer’s deck eight miles off. There are 22 feet of water on the bar at mid tide, the rise and fall being about thirty inches, twice each day. Sailing vessels are gener- ally towed into the harbor by a government steam-tug, whose charges vary from thirty to seventy-five dollars, according to the tonnage of the vessel. On leaving port, vessels seldom have to wait for a wind, as the trades

blow fresh and fair nine months of the year. 1*

6 HAWAIIAN GUIDE BOOK.

HONOLULU,

The commercial emporium of the Hawaiian Islands, is located on the south side of Oahu, four miles from Diamond Head. It is the capital of the Kingdom, the seat of government and residence of the King, the largest and only place im the group deserving the name of city. Here the traveler lands, and here receives his first impressions of Hawaii and the Hawaiians. Asa de- pot for trade, it possesses great advantages as the key of the Northern Pacific, and the ocean half-way-house of North America and Asia, California and the New World of Australia and New Zealand. Its harbor is small, but perfectly safe, and will easily accommodate one hundred vessels. Its wharves, of which it possesses _ a frontage of over three thousand feet, are not surpassed in any port, being built mostly of solid stone. Hvery vessel that can cross the bar can lay alongside of these wharves, where the facilities for loading and discharg- ing cargoes are equal to those of any port of America or Hurope. It is no exaggeration to state that from 500 to 600 tons of general cargo can be handled, if nec- essary, during twenty-four hours. The Custom House and public store-houses, built of coral and fully fire- proof, are located within an hundred yards of the steam- boat wharf and connect with it by tramways. Indeed, nothing has been omitted on the part of the government and the merchants of the port, to provide every possible facility for the convenience of shipping and commerce.

All passengers who land at this port, whether to re- main permanently or only a few weeks, are required to obtain a permit to land their baggage, and also to pay a fee of two. dollars towards the support of the Queen’s

HAWAIIAN GUIDE BOOK. 7

Hospital, an institution maintained for the joint benefit of foreigners and Hawaiians. Passengers in transitu, who leave in the vessel in which they arrive, or who remain not over thirty days, do not pay this or any other government tax. All merchandize importations are re- quired to pay a duty, mostly ten per cent. ad valorem and must be regularly entered at the customs, the pen- alty for failure being seizure and confiscation, not alone of the merchandise, but also of the vessel in which it was brought.

Two hours after a steamer is telegraphed, if in the daytime, or after her rockets are seen, if at night, she reaches the dock,—sufficient time to give notice of her arrival, to attract a large crowd of sight-see-ers, and bring out carriages and expresses, drays and handcarts to convey passengers and baggage to the Hotel or pri- vate residences.

THE HAWAIIAN HOTEL.

This elegant establishment, on which so much of the pleasure of a yisit to Honolulu and the Hawaiian Islands depends, was erected in 1871 by the joint expenditure of the citizens and the government, in answer to a deeply felt want and a constant public demand for a first class hotel. It was opened for the accommodation of guests early in 1872, and no better kept public house can be found in any port of the Pacific. A view of the build- ing is given in the frontispiece.

The hotel proper, not including out-buildings, is 120 by 90 feet, is built of concrete stone, is three stories in height, and is surrounded by broad airy verandas, Hach story is abundantly high to give free circulation

8 HAWAILAN GUIDE BOOK,

of fresh air through all the rooms, halls and parlors. The accompanying plan of the main floor of the hotel affords a proximate idea of the arrangement of the

rooms.

Veranda. Veranda.

\

Front Entrance

Entrance Hall.

Back Stairs,

Pantry. |

Q)

Veranda.: Veranda.

Hall.

75 x 32 Dining

The location could not have been bettered in Hono- lulu, and is a genuine tropical gem. The premises

HAWAIIAN GUIDE BOOK. 9

cover an acre of ground, which is shaded by so many fine trees, as to merit the appellation of tree-garden, com« municating with every street on the block. When illu- minated at night with flaming torches and Chinese lanterns for an out-door concert, and when crowded with - people and the gay colors which the Hawaiian ladies love to display, the picture equals the enchanted descriptions of the Arabian Nights. The royal palace, the new Par- liament House, the public square, where the really ad- mirable Hawaiian band plays every Saturday, and the churches of different denominations, are all within a few minutes walk, while the wharves, Custom House, Post Office, business houses and Consulates can be reached in four or five minutes. What more could be desired ?

The entrance to the Hotel, both in front and rear, is by massive stone stairways, protected by iron railing, that add to the. imposing appearance of the building. The visitor, on reaching the top of the ascent, finds himself under the broad veranda, which is supported by wooden pillars, with a promenade of the whole front before him. He finds the office on his left as he enters the cool hall, where a courteous at- tendant is always waiting to supply his wants, answer his questions, and aid in making him comfortable and at home.

The hotel contains forty-two sleeping rooms, and will accommodate from sixty to ninety guests, who will find the furniture all new, having been imported expressly for it. The beds are provided with springs, and the best of hair mattrasses and linen. ‘The other fixtures are such as a long experience in tropical climate has proved best adapted to promote the comfort and happi-

10 HAWAIIAN GUIDE BOOK.

ness of the guests. Hvyery room is connected with the office where is placed a Will & Frink Annunciator, con- sidered the best in use. Water from the government pipes is laid on, and carried to every room in the build- ing. Bath-rooms, with both cold and warm water, and water-closets, are provided on each floor.

The entire building is lighted with gas, manufactured on the premises in a large machine furnished by the Pa- cific Pneumatic Gas Co. Upwards of two hundred burners are provided, and this has proved the safest and most economical mode of lighting the building.

The hotel parlor is a spacious room, 30 by 32 ft. lo- cated in the southern extremity of the main floor of the house. It is handsomely furnished with black walnut furniture of the’ most approved pattern, and is carpeted with elegant Brussels, making with its surroundings, a very pleasant reception room.

The dining room occupies the whole of the north wing. It has at the west end, a compartment that may be included or closed fora private diningroom. The di- mensions of this spacious hall, are 75 by 32 feet, and one hundred and eighty guests can be accommodated in it.

The kitchen is in the basement, and is a model of economy in its way. Itis furnished with a first class French cooking range, capable, with a small supply of fuel, of rapidly cooking meals for five hundred people. A dumb waiter connects it with the dining room. Near- by is the store-room, with its large, convenient refriger- ator, where fresh meats, vegetables and all perishable articles of a tropical cuisine, are kept in perfect order.

The Billiard Hall is under the dining room in the

HAWAIIAN GUIDE BOOK. 11

north wing of the basement. It is of the same size as the room above, is cool, airy and very attractive, and contains at the east end a bar and card table.

Three of Strahle & Co’s finest billiard tables, made of choice California laurel oak, furnished with Delany’s patent cushions and other late improvements, occupy the hall. No better tables are made in any part of the world, and the proprietor has spared and will spare no expense to render this part of the establishment a popu- lar resort to the lovers of the game.

The Hawaiian Hotel was leased by Mr. Allan Herbert early in 1872. He has done everything in his power to make it all that the most exacting could demand, and has omitted nothing that can increase its reputation as a first- class hotel. The department of cuisine in a new country is always difficult to manage. When Mr. Herbert took charge, he found it nearly impossible to supply his tables with variety sufficient to please. But after becoming acquainted with the Chinese gardeners, and those natives and foreigners who deal in poultry, fish and game, milk, butter and eggs, fruits, vegetables, &c., and after in- structing them how to produce and prepare for market, and deliver in good order what he might require, he has so systematized this department, that any time he can call for and obtain in quantities to suit, anything he needs. He pays one gardener over a thousand dollars a year, and expends a much larger sum for fruits. To be sure of a constant supply of poultry and eggs, he sustains a ranch at, Kalihi, where he maintains a stock of fowls, ducks, turkeys, geese, and pigs, buying them as offered, keeping on hand and fattening fer the table. A good

12 HAWAIIAN GUIDE BOOK.

idea of his success may be obtained from the following bill-of fare: *

Fiso—Soft-shell crabs, Pacific Ocean lobsters, mullet, bonita, dolphin, flying-fish and some twenty varieties of tropical fish in their seasons.

Mzats—Beef, mutton, pork and all kinds of poultry.

Vncerastes—lrish and sweet potatoes, beans, toma- toes, corn, beets, cabbage, carrots, radishes, onions, tur nips, squash, egg-plant, cucumbers, taro, bread-fruit, yams, &c.

Fruitr—Strawberries, grapes, guavas, oranges, pine- apples, bananas, mangoes, pohas or cape gooseberries; papaias, melons, ohias, dec.

These articles of food may be obtained at nearly all seasons, or in such variety as to satisfy any reasonable guest. The proprietor always provides his table with every meat, vegetable, and fruit the market affords. Fresh island butter, eggs and milk are served in abund- ance, and ice manufactured in the city is daily supplied, while no purer water can be found than that which flows through the government pipes, from the clear mountain streams and reservoirs of Nuuanu Valley.

Mr. Herbert has in addition provided a cottage at the gea-shore at Waikiki some three miles distant, where guests can go and spend the day, or merely enjoy a morning or evening bath in the ocean. This great lux- ury will be appreciated by many besides invalids. The coach of the eStablishment will make as many trips as called for to this pleasant sea-side resort, and saddle horses may be provided at short notice, by leaving or- ders at the office. Besides all this, when the steamers

HAWAIIAN GUIDE BOOK. 13

are in port, occasional open-air concerts are given, when the hotel grounds are illuminated, the balconies and walks thrown open to the public, and Berger’s brass band of twenty-four pieces discourses its favorite Ha- wallan and foreign airs.

Probably no building in Honolulu was ever built more faithfully than this hotel, whose every part was constructed with a view to strength and permanence. Its roof is covered with the best English slate. From the cupola an excellent view may be had of the city em- bowered in trees, the mountain valleys, the plain and the ocean stretching from Diamond Head to the Waianae mountains, twenty-five or thirty~miles distant to the north-west. Very few views in Honolulu surpass it, save, perhaps, that from the Bell Tower, the new Gov- ernment House or from Punch Bowl Hill. The total cost of this inter-oceanic hotel (and it must be remem- bered that Honolulu is a place with but 3000 foreign in- habitants) was not far front $150,000.

Tourists in pursuit of health or the most delightful tropical climate and scenery: men of business as well as men of leisure, can have no excuse for delaying their visits to this historie group or passing by the port for lack of suitable accommodations. None who come, ever regret the excursion, be the stay one month or six. Those who propose remaining at the hotel longer than a day or two, should always engage their rooms, if possi- ble, before arrival, as the house is sometimes crowded.

FIRST IMPRESSIONS OF THE CITY.

Attractive as is the appearance of the port and its

surroundings, as seen from the ship’s deck while ap- 2

14 HAWAIIAN GUIDE BOOK.

proaching and entering the harbor, the stranger is exci- ted and amused with the novel sights and scenes that meet him at every new turn in the Anglo-Hawaiian city of Honolulu. The bright eyes, intelligent faces and light dress of the native race strike him curiously and pleasantly before he leaves the deck, The mixed crowd from eyery nation under the sun, that throngs the wharf, the peculiarity of some of the vehicles, the coral, fruit, gold-fish and shell peddlers, the Babel jargon of French, German, Portuguese and the aboriginal lan- guage, prove that he is in a new land; while the pon- derous coral stone warehouses, walls and stores, sure tokens of civilization, assure him that he is not abso- lutely in a new world and alone. The streets are of macadamized coral, black lava stone and sand; in the city and vicinity well graded and smooth, forming fine carriage drives. The streets near the wharves, being without trees, are at midday hot and uninviting ; but farther away from the business centre, the residences of native and foreign inhabitants may be found, where beautiful foliage is seen, such as exists only in similar lands; trees, the beauty of whose foliage, flowers and fruit cannot fail to arrest the attention of the most eareless. A few are indigenous, such as the cocoa-nut palm, the lauhala or screw palm, the breadfruit, the ohia or native apple, the koa, the hau, and the kukui or candle-nut tree; but many of the handsomer trees have been introduced from foreign countries, and have grown into magnificent stature within the past quarter century. Among these are the mango, opulent in fruit, the tamarind, the Chinese orange and the sweet orange, the lime, the alligator pear, the citron, the custard ap-

HAWAIIAN GUIDE BOOK. 15

ple, the fig, the coffee, bananas, papaias, peaches, date- palms, magnolias, algarobas, and samang or monkey- pod, wonderful in its profusion of flowers and the regularity with which it folds its sensitive leaves to sleep. Also several varieties of acacia, the eucalyptus of Australia, the brilliant ponciana regia, Norfolk and Caledonia pines, the royal and fan-palms, the Indian banyan, the bamboo, the loquot and Chinese plum, with _ the pepper, cinnamon and spice trees.

Almost concealed by the foliage of these trees and shrubs are the dwelling houses, each with its garden, containing plants and flowers in great variety. In ad- dition to the more common kinds will be found Japanese and Micronesian lilies, crape myrtle, the alamander, blooming creepers, the passion flower, Mexican vine, and indeed: the flora of nearly every country under the sun is represented in these isles of the sea. Among the more showy of the creepers is the Bourgainvillia, with its brillant crimson clusters, which, in the spring, will attract attention of strangers, and forms a notice- able feature in Honolulu. The dwellings of the foreign residents are constructed either of stone or wood and surrounded with verandas. Water is brought in iron pipes to every house, thus conferring upon all the peo- ple that greatest of luxuries in a hot climate—abundant, pure water. The poorest can enjoy his daily bath and cultivate flowers and vegetables about his home. Hyery day of every month in the year one can feast his eyes on roses, lilies and a legend of floral gems, unsurpassed in variety elsewhere.

Honolulu contains a population, by the census of 1872, of 14,852. Of this total, less than 3,000 are for- eigners. The native population is very movable.

16 HAWAITAN GUIDE BOOK. GOVERNMENT.

The city is under the direct watch, ward and control of the King and his advisers, of whom the following is the register of the court, cabinet, judiciary and ‘princi- pal government officers:

THE COURT.

His Masesty Tue Kine, born November 16th, 1836; elected Feb- ruary 12, 1874, and inaugurated February 18, 1874. Son of Kapaakea and Keohokalole.

Her Magesty KAPIOLANI, Queen Consort.

Her Majesty Queen Dowager Emma, relict of His Majesty Alexan- der Liholiho, Kamehameha LY.

His Royal Highness, Wini1am P, LeLeronoxu, Heir Apparent— Brother to the King—born January 10, 1855.

Her Royal Highness Lypra K. Dominis, sister to the King.

Her Royal Highness Mintam L. CLEGHORN, sister to the King.

His Royal Highness CHARLES KANAINA, father of the late King LUNALILO.

Her Royal Highness Ruta KEELIKOLANI, sister to Their.late Maj- esties Kamehameha LY. and VY.

THE KING’S CABINET.

Minister of Foreign Affairs..-........ ..s.0- His Ex. W. L. Green. Minister of Interior....... Br eeah ee ae His Ex. W. L. Moehonua. AVES Per OL MIM Cem. eecerereng ttelen side aette His Ex. John 8. Walker. Attorney Generals. cin. . tennessee + are 6 His Ex. Richard H. Stanley.

PRIVY COUNCIL OF STATE.

-H, R. H. Wm. P. Leleiohoku, H. R. A. Chas. Kanaina, their Ex- cellencies W. L. Green, W. L. Mochonua, J. 8. Walker, R. H. Stanley, J. O. Dominis, P. Kanoa, J. M. Kapena.

Honorables Elisha H. Allen, C. C. Harris, A. F. Judd, E. O. Hall, Chas. R. Bishop, P. Nahaolelua, H. A. Widemann, H. A. Ka- bann; J. Mott Smith, 8. N. Castle, Godfrey Rhodes, 8, P. Ka- lama, J. W. Makalena, 8. G. Wilder, Henry M. Whitney, A. 8. Cleghorn, J. Moanauli, H. A. P. Carter, E. H. Boyd, J. A. Cummins, W. C. Parke, J. U. Kawainui, W, P. Wood, R. Stir- liog, W. J. Smith.

Secretary,....... Sat ece Serres ee tisia OIE St din wale Hon. E. H. Boyd.

HAWAIIAN GUIDE BOOK. 17.

SUPREME COURT.

Chief Justice and Chancellor........ fan esce ye. One Hy, A. Allen. First Associate Justice..... Raters tseetetyy ate nage ares Hon. C. C. Harris. Becond Agsociave Gushice: ve cck ow elecaivar aececees Hon. A. F. Judd. lenis cere Seite sels. nies W. R. Seal. | Deputy Clerk....J. E. Barnard. GOVERNMENT OFFICERS. Governor of Hawaii........ Jie aks Rin ct neners sae His Ex. 8. Kipi, Hilo. Governor of Oahu.............. His Ex. J. O. Dominis, Honolulu. Governorof Maui. «ances ees cers His Ex. J. M. Kapena, Lahaina. GOVErno-OMMAUAL, cen cerc ese wate e es His Ex. P. Kanoa, Nawiliwili. Collector General of Customs. ...........-e2ee0e Col. W. F. Allen, Deputy Collector........ Lah atarsieeta eh eee J. A. Hassinger. BOBEMASTers Generally sics8ta.5 3043 ajaptmadeateld sie Helatacele A. P. Brickwood. Hirst: ClerkeyPost: OMicers tun Mees aes ccleuiesc Pee aces I. B. Peterson. Marshal of the Hawaiian Islands..... Head Hate ens Wm, OC. Parke. Perr tye MTS OAL oes, cla aieicle teretemtete science anion Ae David Dayton. DEP OLeALbORNG YWo-en Cie cal koe taclealtle «la stcute o/s 015 5 L. McCully. Water Supervisor & Clerk of Market...... Sia teswttls Ate H. Prendergast. Registrar of Conveyances....5..ceescncscenecucces Thomas Brown. Secretary of Interior Department................- Chas. T. Gulick. Ass't. Secretary Interior Department.............. F. W. Beckley. Secretary of Foreign Office.......... “EERE eo a aad Wm. Jarrett. Registrar of Public Accounts. .......0...-cnccesceeves J. O. Carter. Police Justice of Honolulu............ Peet tecse ee cies W. C. Jones, IPolieerbistices of Muahsinaes: case on 2 co sees lemic« H. Dickenson, Sen. A ONIGSrUIBLICesON EMLOrte niet shir ts sels cals vie vel etree L. Kaina. dailor of Oahu Prison........ Be eielatbl esd fexebaarcleters seatgiat eete tes D. K, Fyfe. Sheriff of Hawaii...... settee ap atets oper eyietabe ra cir raare L. Seyerance, Hilo. Sheriff of Mani............. fe Rig lant weet ate T. W. Everett, Lahaina. Sheriff of Kauai........... Suetal vel oe) shone sete 8. W. Wilcox, Nawiliwili. Physician Insane Asylum......... deel saree ale .G. Trousseau, M. D. Physician Kalibi Leper Hospital...... ao hentest G. Trousseau, M. D. POREGENVSICIAns | eLOMO UN tne een eeo’eyele tee ote G. Trousseau, M. D. Harbor Master of Honolulu............ese0-08 Capt. Daniel Smith. Pilots..... Thee ebbtarereoess deta Capts. A. McIntyre and Wm. Babcock. Road Supervisor and Tax Collector. ........ arnt Geo. H. Luce. Surveyor General, Honolulu.............. Prof. W. D. Alexander. Port Surveyor and Guard.......esseesseececerses W. A. Markham.

The members of the cabinet and most of the govern- ment officers have public offices in the new Parliament 2*

18 HAWAITAN G UIDE BOOK.

House on King Street, opposite the palace grounds. Persons desiring introduction to the King should apply to the representatives of their several nations, who will be able to secure a presentation for those that have proper credentials. The following are the diplomatic and consular representatives :

United States—Minister Resident, His Ex. Henry A. Peirce; resi- dence, Judd Street.

England—Commissioner and Consul General, Major J. H. Wode- honse; residence Makiki, 11g miles southeast of Honolulu. France—Consul and Commissioner, Mons. Theo. Ballien; resi-

dence, corner Beretania and Punch-bow] Streets. France—M. Pernet, Chancelier.

FOREIGN. CONSULS.

United States—Honolulu............-200 mo Mtelerete sac James Scott. United States—Honolulu—Vice Consul.......... Wm. H, Peebles. United States—Hilo—Commercial Agent,.......... Thos. Spencer. United States—Honolulu—Nayal Pay Inspector..... Ed. C. Doran. England—Honolulu—Vice Consul..............- Theo. H. Davies. ATES CIA ELON OLU Ws aie e:sincesteciecineren es we SER AL ET: E. Hoffmann. Netherlands and Belyium—Honolulu................- F. Banning. Italy—Honolulu........-...-. ON AE AS A F. A. Schaefer. Whrke—H on olules oyht Feta sae Saeed JL Melee tects dee C. 8. Bartow. Peru—Honolulu......-..0.. e005 (Acting) Alexander J. Cartwright. Germaty—Honolulns 51.4000. eee svaake us (Acting) J. C. Glade, Sweden and Norway—Honolulu............. (Acting) J. C. Glade. Denmark—Honolulu.............0.000- (Acting) H. R. Macfarlane. Russia—Honolulu—Vice Consul........... (Acting) J. W. Pfluger.

These representatives of the leading nations of the world, maintain the national honor in a manner most creditable to the sovereign and the people they repre- sent. They extend to every traveler from their native land, the cordial greeting of home, the right-hand of fellowship, timely aid in cases of want or distress, and the protection of the national flag. Their offices are

*

HAWAIIAN GUIDE BOOK. 19

located in various parts of the city. At any time, by inquiring at the hotel office, directions may be obtained or a guide secured, either to their dwellings or offices.

PLACES OF WORSHIP.

Strangers will always find a welcome to the services of any of the churches, of which the following is a list. The two first mentioned are conducted in the native language:

Kawaiahao (Congregational) Church, corner of King and Punch- bow! Streets; Rev. H. H. Parker; Pastor, Services in Hawai- jan every Sunday at 101g A. M., and at 3 P. M.

Kaumakapili (Congregational) Church, Beretania Street, near Ma- unakea; Rev. M. Kauea, Pastor. Services in Hawaiian every Sunday at 101g A. M., and at 71g P. M.

Bethel Chureh,; corner of King and Bethel Streets; Rev. 8. C. Da- mon, D. D., Pastor and Seamen’s Chaplain. Services every Sunday at 11 A. M.; Sunday School meets one hour before the morning service.

Fort Street (Congregational) Church, corner of Fort and Beretania Streets; Rey. W. Frear, Pastor. Services every Sunday at 11 A. M. and 724 P. M.; Sunday School meets one hour before the

_ morning service, Roman Catholic Church, Fort Street, near Beretania; Rt. Rey. L. Maigret, Lord Bishop of Arathea; Rey. Abbe Modesteand Rev.

Father Hermann, assisting. Services every Sunday at 6 and at 10 A, M. and at 44g P. M.

Episcopal Church, Emma Square; Rt. Rey. Bishop of Honolulu Officiating, assisted by Rey. A. Macintosh and Rev. D. Dunne. Services in English every Sunday at 614 and 11 AM., and at 246 and 714 P.M. Services in Hawaiian every Sunday at 9 A. M. and 33g P. M. Sunday School meets one hour before Eng- lish morning service.

Honolulu Lyceum, corner of Nuuanu and Kukui Streets. Reli-

gious services Occasionally Sunday eveniug, at 714 o’clock. No settled Pastor.

20 HAWAIIAN GUIDE BOOK.

LODGES.

Le Progres de ’Oceanie, A. F. @ A. M.; meets on King St., on the Jast Monday in each month.

Hawaiian, No. 21, F. & A. M.; meets in Makee’s Block, on the first Monday in each month,

Honolulu Royal Arch Chapter; meets in the kall of Le Progres de POceanie, every third Thursday of each month.

Honolulu Commandery No. 1, Knights Templar; meets at the Lodge Room of Le Progres de l’Oceanie, every second Thurs- day of each month.

Kamehameha Lodge of Perfection; meets in the Hall of Le Pro- gres de l’Oceanie, every fourth Thursday of each month.

Excelsior No, 1, I. O. of O. F.; meets at the hall in Odd Fellows’ Building, on Fort St., every Tuesday evening.

Polynesian Eucampment No. 1, I. O. of O. F.; meets at Odd Fel- lows’ Hall, first and third Fridays of each month.

Oahu No. 1, K. of P.; meets on Hotel Street every Thursday eve- ning.

Ultima Thule, No.1, 1. O. of G. T.; meets on King Street every Tuesday evening.

Queen Emma, No. 2, I. O. of G. T.; Lodge meets on King Street, every Monday evening.

Visiting members of these different organizations will find in Honolulu, that fellowship that becomes the law of their order, and a cordial welcome will always await traveling brothers who may visit Honolulu. ;

PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS.

Tun Insane Agyium, located in Kapalama, about two miles north of the city, is supported chiefly by the gov- ernment, and ample provision is made for all who suffer from temporary or permanent insanity. It is under the medical care of Dr. G. Trousseau, and the management of Mr. A. B. Davidson. The number of patients varies from twenty-five to forty, and they comprise not only Hawaiians but natives of other countries.

HAWAIIAN GUIDE BOOK. 21

Tue Oanu JAIL is a substantial coral stone structure located at Leleo, a short walk northerly from the Post Office and in full view from the harbor. Here are kept most of the criminals sentenced for offences committed in any part of the group. The number varies from eighty to one hundred. Most of them are sentenced to hard labor and are employed on the roads, or other goy- ernment service. ‘This state prison is one of the best kept institutions to be found in any country, and is well worth a visit from those interested in prison discipline, is under the immediate supervision of Marshal W. C. Parke and Jailor D. K. Fyfe, whose management has tended greatly to its efficiency.

TH QuzEn’s Hospitat at the foot of Punch Bowl Hill, was erected in 1860, chiefly by the efforts of Kine Kamrnamnua TV, and named after Queen Emma. Itis a well kept institution under the supervision of Dr. Rob’t. McKibbin, Physician, and Mr. T. Toel, manager. It has usually about one hundred patients, including Hawaiians and foreigners.

THE ParRLiAMeEnt Houss, called Atttonant Hats, erect- ed in 1872-3, is located on King street, nearly opposite the palace grounds. It contains the hall of the legislative assembly, and is the headquarters of all the government officers, including the ministers, judges, governor, bu- reau of public instruction, marshal and police, hall of records, public library, museum, etc. It is one of the finest public buildings any country can boast of, in pro- portion to the population and resources, and admirably serves the purpose for which it was erected.

Tue Rerormatory Scoot, established for the refor- mation of juvenile delinquents, is located at Kapalama,

99 HAWAIAN GUIDE BOOK.

one mile north of the city. It is presided over by Mr. George H. Dole, and is under the general supervision of the Board of Education. Thenumber of juveniles in it varies from 50 to 75, all of whom receive instruction in the elementary branches and in manual labor.

THE SCHOOLS,

In this kingdom, are supported chiefly by the government, which expends annually about $40.000 in sustaining them. very district is provided with schools and teach- ers, where all who choose can receive instruction in the common branches, and it 1s a noteworthy fact that a Hawaiian who cannot, at least, read and write, is rarely to be found. Besides the common schools, there are higher seminaries and boarding schools, in which both the vernacular and English languages are taught. There are a total of 242 schools and 7755 scholars in the kingdom. Honolulu is well provided with select English schools where natives and foreigners can obtain a good academical education. Among theseis Punahou School, established thirty years since, and situated about two miles east of the town, in an exceedingly healthy location.

WHAT TO SEE, AND WHERE TO GO.

The stranger, after settling himself in comfortable quarters, next seeks something to see or do, and asks what has Honolulu worth seeing ?

We say, go to the “pali,”’* for a view which cannot be surpassed in California even, or to Kalihi Valley for a sight of the banana orchards, that send hundreds of

——

* Hawaiian for precipice’’ or ** palisade.’’

HAWAIIAN GUIDE BOOK. 23

bunches away by every steamér: go to Punch Bowl Hill for a tropical picture that has few superiors in the world; or if you are a climber and desire a larger horizon, see the same from the summit of Round Top; or reaching still higher, overlook the whole from Tantalus, a peak directly in the rear of Punch Bowl Hill; or if a member of the Alpine Club, try the rock cliffs of the bar- rier mountains, that send their helmets into the windy clouds. Gotothe valleys of Nuuanu, Pauoa, Paloloand Manoa, go to the sea-shore and cocoanut groves at Wai- kiki. Take a horseback ride by moonlight around Dia- mond Head, returning by the telegraph station. Go around the island on foot, on horse, or in a carriage, either by the way of Waianae, Koolau and the pali, or take a shorter and rougher ride by way of Coco Head, Waimanalo, Kaneohe, and the Pali.

THE NUUANU PALI.

Six miles back of Honolulu, at the abrupt head of Nun- anu valley, is a precipice remarkable among the most re- markable wonders of nature. It affords, in one view, @ picture of wild, natural scenery, that of its kind is unri- valled in the known world. The mountains, that from the Honolulu ocean verge, rise from the sea level to a height of 4000 feet, do not descend in sober mountain fashion to the north side, but are cleft in tyro, one half left standing, the other gone, no one knows whither. Nowhere is the perpendicular rock less than 800 feet deep ; in many places the bold front is thrice this appal- ling depth. Below are plains and hills, rolling prairies on a small scale, containing sugar and rice plantations, grazing ranches, extinct craters, ete. At the water's

94 HAWAIIAN GUIDE BOOK.

edge may be seen fish ponds and a fine bay, beyond are the rugged breakers and the barrier reef to an ocean, that has no other shores to wash until it reaches distant North America, .

The road to the pali from Honolulu, ascending all the way, is excellent for carriages as well as horsemen. After leaving the hotel, the traveler enters Nuuanu Val- ley, most beautiful among the valleys of Oahn, and pro- ceeds by a broad ascent towards the heart of the island. On either hand are cottages and flower gardens. Some new tropical tree or creeper or fruit or flower may be discovered each succeeding moment. After crossing the Nuuanu stream the ascent becomes perceptible and the valley begins to contract. Here we see the burial grounds, where many are laid who have died far from home and kin, A little beyond, on the right, stands the Royal Mausoleum, a gothic structure of stone, which contains the remains of all the Hawaiian Kings and also of many of the high chiefs who have died since the con- quest. The grounds are well kept and the stranger will see in these cemeteriey much to remind him of older civ- ilization.

As the traveler proceeds, his attention will be drawn to the patches, where is grown the Hawaiian staff of life, the taro, cultivated in mud and water. It pro- duces a root, which is baked in the earth, then pounded to paste which is called poi, and forms the principal ar- ticle of food for the natives. This is the aruwm esculen- tum of the botanists, and in some localities is cultivated on the upland.

A mile from the cemeteries the country residence of

HAWAIIAN GUIDE BOOK. 25

Queen Dowager Emmia is situated. Thence on, the val- ley loses its civilized appearance, the rugged mountain draws its steep cliffs nearer, and lines of fences grow crooked and at length disappear altogether.

This valley is classic ground in Hawaiian history. Here was fought the last-of seven decisive battles by the Napoleonic Kamehameha, victories that made him sole monarch and established his dynasty. On the rocky slopes of these impregnable mountains, the natives, with club and rock and spear resisted the hordes of the inva- der, fighting vainly but well, for wife, child and native land, and at last were driven headlong over the pali. Here fell Kaiana, rival of Kamebameha, disputing with war club and spear, every foot of the conqueror’s pro- gress. It is a lonely and romantic spot, worthy of the death-strugele of brave and knightly warrior chiefs of the ancient time. b

Nuuanu Valley narrows from the width of a mile at its entrance to a few hundred yards at the pali. The ~ mountains on either side rise up in lofty turrets or pin- nacles which are lost in a cap of clouds. The wind, at times, draws through this gap with tremendous force. The carriage should be left in the plateau below. The visitor-Gan stand on the parapet of the precipice, which is protected by an iron railing, for here is the only prac- ticable descent over the mountains to the windward side of the island, and the government has hewn, from the basaltic rock, a safe road after the plan of an Alpine pass, leading to the base of the precipice, over which horge- men and footmen may be seen constantly passing. This trip to the pali can be easily accomplished in three hours, or less, perhaps, if the traveler is limited in time,

3

26 HAWAIIAN GUIDE BOOK. WAIKIKI.

The cocoanut grove of Waikiki is only four miles from the hotel and the road excellent. This was the residence of the ancient kings of Oahn, as well as of Kamehameha the Great, after the conquest, and before the discovery of Honolulu harbor. During the sum- mer months it has been the residence of the more re- cent kings. The grove once numbered 10,000 trees. Many have died, and many been cut down for timber and posts, while others have been destroyed by a species of caterpillar. The beach, which seaward skirts the grove, is a famous resort for bathing. |

COCO HHAD.

The ride to this southernmost poimt of Oahu, ten miles from the hotel, must be performed on horseback. The road lies past the telegraph station, and through several little villages and cocoanut groves. This is an extinet crater and is flanked by a beautiful cove, where tropical fishes are usually abundant. Returning, take the road along the beach and around Diamond Head,

thus traversing the battle ground of Waialae, where

Kamehameha fought his first battle with the King of Oahu—a sanguinary fight, in which thousands of war- riors were slain, whose bodies were buried in the sand near the beach. Skulls have been frequently found here and hundreds carried off as relics. This battle was fought in 1790 or ’91.

FERNS,

In great variety, may be found in our valleys by those in search of specimens of tropical vegetation. He who

HAWAIIAN GUIDE BOOK. 24