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2 ^



2 ^








1700 TO 1917

By Thomas franklin Waters

PuESiDiirr OF TBS Ipswich Hutorical Socistt

The Ipswich Historical Society






The first volume of Ipswich history, entitled Ipswich in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, 1633-1700, was published in 1905. It was received with so much favor that I have been encouraged to continue my study and research to the present day. To the end that the book may be interesting to many readers, beside students of history, and may be something more than a series of disconnected annals, the topical method, followed in the first volume, has been continued.

I have endeavored to portray as graphically as possible the changing life of the commimity in successive periods, in the common course of Town affairs and in critical periods of Colonial and National existence, and have not hesitated to make frequent excursions into the contemporaneous history of other towns to secure illustrative material.

The churches have had such an important place, that their history has been made a prominent feature, and as their rec- ords are liable to destruction or loss, copious abstracts have been made that the essential facts may be preserved. The extensive fisheries and commerce, which formerly employed many men and gave thrilling and romantic interest to the daily life but are now almost forgotten, have received care- ful study. The history of the schools, especially that of the old Grammar School, and the Ipswich Seminary, so widely famous in its day, has been told at length.

The field of Ipswich genealogy, however, is so vast and in- tricate and so much material for students is so readily avail- able in the published Vital Statistics and in the family his-



tories, that it has not been entered. Neither has there been any attempt to compile the list of Revolutionary soldiers and sailors, as the cojnplete record of service is easily found in the bulky volumes published by the Commonwealth. But I have made the narrative of the French and Indian War as complete as possible, with copious extracts from the unpub- lished records in the Massachusetts Archives, and have en- deavored to compile an accurate record of the Ipswich volun- teers in the Civil War.

The topographical studies, which constituted Part II of Volume I, have been continued in the Publications of the Ipswich Historical Society, I^o. XV, The Old Bay Road, No. XVI-XVII, Candlewood, No. XVIII, Jeffrey's Neck and The Way Thereto, and No. XIX, Ipswich Village and The Old Rowley Road. Brief sketches of these localities appear in Chapter XXXII, Along Some Old Roads.

T. F. W. Ipswich, October, 1917.



CHAPTER I. The Beginnings op the 18th Century^ .... 1

CHAPTER TI. Queen Anne's War, 31

CHAPTER III. Some Great Funerals, 54


Inns and Inn Keepers and the Traffic in Strong

Drink, 66

CHAPTER V. Laws, Courts and Judges, 90


Division in the Parish. The Hamlet. Linebrook.

The Great Awakening. The South Parish, . 110

CHAPTER VII. Colonial Currenot and the Ijand Bank, . . 139


The French and Indian or Seven Years War, 1755- 1762 AND The Acadians in Ipswich, . . ' . . 166

CHAPTER IX. Slaves, Servants and Apprentices, 210

CHAPTER X. Fishing and Commerce in the 18th Century, . 230

CHAPTER XI. Trades and Bmpix)tments in the 18th Century, 250

CHAPTER XII. ScHOOiA AND School Masters op the 18th Century, 274




CHAPTER XIII. The Breach with Great Britain, 293

CHAPTER XIV. The Revolutionary War, 316

CHAPTER XV. After the Revoldtion, 361

CHAPTER XVI. The Poor and the Stranger within the Gates, . 386

CHAPTER XVII. The New Centdry. Wars and Rumors of Wars, . 403


The First Church after 1747, ...?... 439

CHAPTER XIX. The Linebrook Church, 1746, 452

CHAPTER XX. The South Church, 1747, 460

CHAPTER XXI. The Baptist Church, 1806, 484

CHAPTER XXII. The Methodist Episcopal Church, 1822, . . . 497

CHAPTER XXIII. Schools and School Teachers in the 19th Century, 513


The Ipswich Ac-4J)emy, later known as the Ipswich

Female Seminary, 538

CHAPTER XXV. Ipswich, Seventy-Five Years Ago, 576

CHAPTER XXVI. Shipping and Sailors of the 19th Century, . . 600

CHAPTER XXVII. The Textile Industry, 626

CHAPTER XXVIII. The Unitarian Church, 1830, 642



CHAPTER XXIX. The PEOTESTA?fT Episcopal Church, 647

CHAPTEE XXX. The Civil Was, 1861-1865, 65(8


Some Public Utilities, Eoads and Bridges, Fire De- partment, Water and Light, 694

CHAPTER XXXII. Along Some Old Roads, 707

CHAPTER XXXIII. Ipswich, Then and Now, 744


A List of Soldiers and Sailors credited to Ipswich

in the French and Indian War, 775


Narrative op the Wreck op the ship, 'TDorchester,^'

Captain Epen Caldwell, 783


The Roll op Ipswich Soldiers and Sailors in the Civil War, the Spanish War, 1898, and on the Mexican Frontier, 1916, 788



Bank Bill, Ipswich Land Bank, ....... 159

Gkn. Washington's Obdes to Col. Wade, 347

The Fibst Pabish Meeting House, 1847, 449

The Meeting House of the Linebbook Chubch, 1848, 452

The Meeting House of the South Chubch, 1837, . . 469

The Meeting House of the Baptist Chubch, 1898, 48 i

The Methodist Episcopal Chubch, 497

Eunice Caldwell Cowles 573

John Phelps Cowles, 574

The Ship Malay, 623

The Ship Highlandeb, 625

Ipswich Mills about 1882, 636

Foot bbidge and wateb-way half a centuby ago, . . 636

Ipswich Mills, 1917, . 640

The Pbotestant Episcopal Chubch, 647

Fbactional Cubbency issued by the Union Stobe in

the Civil Wab, 683

The Caleb Wabneb Homestead 695

The besidbnce of Mb. A. Stoby Bbown, 707

The besidence of Mb. Henby Bbown, 709

The summeb home of Mb. Henby L. Dawes, .... 710

The bbsidenoe of Miss Claba Bebtha Dobson ^Wind

Mux Hill, . , . . 711



The summeb home of Mbs. Daniel Fulleb Appleton, 715


MAN, . . . 716

New House, the summeb home of Mb. Fbanois B.

Appleton, 717

Applefield, the summeb home of Mbs. Chables S.

tuckebman, 718

The Co^aqe, the besidbnce of Miss Bhoda F. Kins- man, .... 720



The Jebemiah Kinsman House, 721

The residence of Mb. James H. Pboctob, 722

The Brown Homestead on the Aroilla Farm, ... 731

The summer home of Mrs. Francis B. Harrington, 732

The summer home of Mrs. Joseph Lord, 734

The summer home of Dr. Joseph L. Goodale, . . . 736 Thatch Banks, the summer home of Mr. Augustus N.

Rantoul, •, , 738

The summer home of Mr. Richard T. Crane, Jr.,

Castle Hill, 740

Inglisby, the summer home of the late Charles P.

Searle, i , . . . 741

The Robert Paine Homestead now owned by Mr.

Robert G. Dodge, 743

The James Appleton Memorial Fountain, .... 759

The Benjamin Stickney Cable Memorial Hospital, 761


The Beginnings of the 18th Century.

Ipswich began the new century worthily by building a new meeting house on the sightly hill top, hallowed by the two earlier houses of worship. The Town voted in January, 1699-1700, that the new house should be built near the building soon to be vacated, and instructed the Committee to "levell the place for the floor of said new meeting house." The work was pressed vigorously during the sum- mer and in just a year. Judge Sewall notes in his Diary in January 1700-1701, that he heard Rev. John Rogers preach the last sermon in the old meeting house on the lecture day, and that on January 29, 1700-1 "Ipswich people meet the first time in their New Meeting House."

It was a stately edifice, sixty-six feet long, sixty feet broad and twenty-six feet stud. In anticipation of the dignity of the new meeting house, provision was made for a new and much larger bell. A subscription paper was circulated for voluntary contributions, which is of great interest and value, as it introduces us to the fine group of men who were fore- most in Town affairs at the turn of the century.

Feb. 29: 1699-'700 A copie of Subscriptions as follows For encouragement to all well & publick spirited p'sons for procuring of a bigger Bell for good of y* Towne.

Wee, whose names are hereafted mentioned, doe promise to pay toward a Bell of about 5 or 6^^ weight as followeth, yiz.

£. s. d. £. s. d.

John Appleton



Symond Epps


Jn'. Wain Wright



Sam" Appleton

2- 0-0

Fran* Wainwright



Jn" Kogers

5- 0-0

Jn» Whipple



Andrew Burdley

0- 3-0



James Bumum 2- 0-0

FAw\ Brag 0-10-0

Nehemiah Jewett 0-12-0

Jn*» Lampson 0-10-0

jSTath^ Knowlton 0-12-0

Doc' Philemon Dane 0- 6-0

Sam" Hart 0-12-0

Isaac Appleton 0- 6-0

Jn*» Adams Sen. 0-10-0

Tho'. Jacobs 0- 6-0

Jn*» Harris Marsh. ^ 0-10-0

Joseph Fuller 0-10-0

Richard Smith 0- 6-0

Edward IS'ealand 0- 6-0

Phillip Fowler 0-18-0

Rob* Kinsman 0-18-0

Jn^ Pen^y 0-12-0

Joseph Whipple Jr. 1- 0-0

Jacob Perkins Tai^^ 0- 6-0

Xath^ Adams Sen. 0- 6-0

Sam" Smith 0- 3-0

Elihu Wardel 0-10-0

Jn** Denison 0- 6-0

Tho" Lull Sen. 0- 6-0

Jn** Whipple, farmer. 0-10-0

Jacob Boarman 0-10-0

W°* Goodhue, farmer 0- 6-0

Jn*»Pottar 0- 6-0

W"" Baker 0- 3-0

Tho». Smith 0- 3-0

Michael Farley 1-10-0

Mathew Perkins 0- 6-0

Caleb Kimball 0- 3-0

Dillingham Caldwell 0- 3-0

Jn^ Shatswell 0- 6-0

Daniell Rogers 0-12-0

Dan'l Rindg 1- 0-0

Francis Crompton 1- 0-0

Joseph Calliffe 0- 9-0

Jn^ Appleton Jun. 0-12-0 Andrew Diamond toward a

Pulpit cush*^ T^icholas Wallis Edm* Herd Robert Lord Widow Straw W^idow Pottar Robert Wallis

2- 0-0 0-12-0 0- 8-0 0-10-0 0- 6-0 0- 3-0 0- 6-0

The old bell was sold to the people of Marblehead for £37-10s and Col. John Wainwright was requested in April, 1700 to procure the new one, at a cost of £72 and £1 6s. for the clapper.

With the time of leaving the old meeting house close at hand, a new resolve seems to have been made, that the dis- order that had disturbed the public worship for some years, owing to the wanton and perverse behavior of the boys and young men, should be effectually quelled. They were seated by the Town Committee in long rows on the benches reserved for them in the gallery or in other less desirable locations, and as they grew restive under the long prayers and longer sermons, they turned naturally to mischief. The Records and Files of the old Quarter Sessions Court reveal their mis- doings. Edward Cogswell, a lad of some sixteen years, pro-

* Marshal.


voked the lad in front of him, pulling his new hat, telling him he was such a pretty fellow he didn't need such adorn- ing and the like, and Thomas Bragg at last landed a blow upon his tormentor's nose witii dire effect. The same Cogs- well, as witnesses testified, was idle in sermon time, "going from one gallerie to another, very idle, with a stick in his hand, going from seate to seate, talking and laughing with boys." (1670). Complaint was made against Thomas Mentor in 1673.

That he carried himself very irreverently and most un- christianly upon the Sabbath days in the time of worship, by setting with his hat upon his head in the time of worship, by taking of maids by the aprons as they came in to the meeting house in the time of worship, by putting his hand in their bosoms and then taking or snatching away their posies or flowers, by laughing and allmost all the time of worship, whispering with those that are like himself and also with very little boys to the ill example of youth, and these the said Mentor has ordinarily done and practised the most of the Sabbaths of this year. (Sept. 1673).

Three young fellows were presented for laughing and spitting in one another's faces, pricking one another in the legs, pulling boys off their seats and "heaving things into the other gallery among y* garls that sit there and Breaking y* glass windows." (May, 1674) Elizabeth Hunt, wife of Samuel, made frequent disturbances by her repeated shuf- fling against the chair of the daughter of her neighbor, so that the girl could hardly save herself from falling to the floor; and one Sunday Thomas Knowlton, Jr., made a bad matter worse by calling out on the Lord's day in prayer time, "Take notis of Gk)odwife Hunt that makes disturbance there."

For this, Knowlton was sentenced to stand in the meeting house on the next lecture day with a paper on his breast, written "FOR DISTURBING Ye MEETING" all the lecture time and pay costs and fees.

The gradual assignment of floor space on which pews were built by the gentry in the latter part of the century brought


some relief, it may be presumed, as families then began to sit together. But there were many boys and young men, who belonged to the poorer families, and some who were bound out as apprentices or servants, and they still sat together and continued their pranks.

Hence the stem regulations published by the Committee of the Town on Dec. 26, 1700.

To prevent the Youth from prophaning Sabbath, & their misordering themselves in times of Grods Worshipp It is Ordered They shall sitt together in two backside Seats of each front Gallery, which are y* Seats appointed for them and that y^ Tything men & others Desired with them Shall take Turn by two in a Day to Sit with them to Inspect them : and such as will not be reclaimed by sd persons Discounte- nanceing of their 111 manners shall be complained of to the Justices and proceeded with by them as the Law Directs unless said Justices shall Instead of fineing of them Im- prison such incorrigible persons or give them Corporal! pun- ishment.

It is Ordered that young men that are not placed in particular seats shall sitt in y* hindemost fifth seat in y* no-west mens Gallery next to John Pottars & on the so-east mens Gallery next Mr. Appletons side of meeting-house, and shall be liable to pay as a fine five shillings If they occupy the other seats yt persons are placed in to be recovered as aforesd for y* use aforesaid.

It is ordered y* maides and Girls y* are not p'ticularly Seated Shall sitt in y* two hindemost fifth seats on y* no-west Womens Gallery next Jn** Pottars & on so-east Women's Gallery next Mr. Appletons .

It is ordered y^ such maids & Girls as s** seats will not containe y* are other where provided for shall sett in y* Alleys below stairs exceptin Alley in y* Middle of Meeting house and before y* mens fust seate, which alley is not allowed to be lumbred with Chairs & stools.

The Tithing men & Constables are Reminded & Desired to take notice of & Informe agst such persons as shall prophane y** Sabbath betwixt meetings: Who Continue about or in y* meeting house at noone times : y* they be proceeded with as the Law Directs & requires and to Inspect such Youths as run in & Out in time of Gods Worship and Complaine to


their parents & Masters unless such will be reclaimed by private Intimations given them.

The Committee l)esir y* all Heads of families would In- forme & Warne their children & Servants not disturb j" selves and the Congregation by making more Noise y" Xeede in Goeing up & Uowne Stairs in time of Wor- shipp of God, which 111 practice is very prejudiciall to y* Auditory as well as Disturbant to serious Well minded per- sons.

Lt. Col.] John Appleton Col.] John Wainwright Mr.] Nehemiah Jewett Deacon] Nath'U Knowlton Serg.] Sam'U Hart Doctor] Philemon Dean Mr.] Daniell Rogers

Committee for Ipswich.

At the Town Meeting in March, 1700-01 renewed expres- sion of this serious purpose to secure reverent worship and a well ordered Town was made in the appointing of twenty- one Tithing men, Mr. Robert Paine heading the list, the son of Elder Robert Paine, a retired minister and a citizen of high standing. These men represented all the diflFerent neighborhoods and the outlying farm dwellers, Mr. John Whipple, farmer, Lieut, John Coggswell, Mr. Richard Walk- er, Senior, Mr. Benjamin Marshall, Mr. Isaac Perkins, Senior, Mr. Jonathan Lumas, Mr. John Staniford, Shore- bom Wilson, Timo^ Pearley, Mr. Nathaniel Adams, Sen^ Alex' Lovell, Mr. Jacob Davis, Sergt. Robert Lord, Corp" John Pengrey, Sergt, Nath* Emerson, John Day, Capt. Dan- iel Ringe, Quar' Kinsman, Samuell Poland, Thomas Per- rin, Jr.

The boys apparently remained in a rebellious mood, not- withstanding this formidable array of tithingmen. On March 14, 1709-10, thirteen tithingmen were chosen and it was ''Voted y* y* Ty thingmen take their turns every Sabbath Day with ye assistance of a Neighbor to look after ye boys y* y* Day may not be prophaned by them."

Tear by year the misbehavior of the boys was a matter of


public concern. The tidiingmen seem to have wearied of their task as Sabbath day police by 1716.

At the March meeting in that year, Samuel Graves was ap- pointed to look after the boys on the Sabbath, and 20 shillings was appropriated as his salary, and more explicit defining of this duty was made in March, 1722, when the Town

Voted, that Joseph Foster be impowered to have the Inspection of the boys that are disorderly on the Lord's Day & Lecture days, & to Correct them as he shall judge meet & necessary in Measure & upon well Executing that Trust for the year Ensuing, the Selectmen are impowered to allow him twenty shillings out of the Town Treasury.

Tradition has it that Mr. Foster, or his successor, pouncing upon the unfortunate lad, whom he detected at his tricks, col- lared him, led him out of the meeting house, administered the birch freely, and restored him to his place in subdued if not reverent mood.

A Town clock was purchased in 1702. The fear of In- dian attack had disappeared so thoroughly that the Town voted to sell the rocks, that made the fort around the old meeting house, to pay for the clock. Where the clock and new bell were placed is open to conjecture. The bell appar- ently was on the roof in a "turret," so called, but there was no belfry, as the Town voted on May 1, 1712 :

That Coll. John. Appleton Esq. & Capt. John Whipple be a Committee to take care of y* Meeting house, to take down y* Bell & to build a Belfry to place y* Bell & sett y* Turret y' on & to fence ? y* roof of y* Meeting house when y* Turrett is removed .

Provision was made for "a room in the meeting house upon the beams by the clock for securing the Town's ammu- nition."

New regard for the comfort of the horses, during the long Sabbath services, found place as well, and permission was given to several citizens to build sheds, near the present Denison school and the Methodist meeting house. They were modest structures however. Serg. John Lampson was


authorized "to set up a shed nine foot long and nine foot wide."

But the "seating of the meeting'^ was the most delicate matter. A certain portion of the floor space in the old meeting house had been allotted to prominent citizens as early as 1675, when Major Francis Wainwright was per- mitted to build a pew. Undoubtedly the same privilege was continued in the new building, but comparatively few en- joyed this extraordinary prerogative. The old order still held for the great majority of the citizens of the Town and they were seated by the Committee appointed for this pur- pose, w^ith the nicest regard for social standing, wealth or official station. It was a task of embarrassing difficulty and there was constant pressure for special privileges. Only two years after the new meeting house was finished, the Com- mittee for seating, on 23'* Feb. 1702-3, granted liberty to

73 men and 62 women to "build up y^ hindmost seats of y*' several Galleries round sd house at their cost & charge & so sift y' in untill removed by consent of the Committee or par- ties Into some other Seetes or Removed by Death or Inhabitt any other Town or p'ecinct. "

The seating capacity of the new house was taxed so se- verely in a few years that the Committee for seating granted liberty on Jan. 26, 1710-11, to specified persons "to build

a Gallery over y* Stairs in So East corner of sd House att y' own Cost & Charge, always provided y* it doth not prejudice y** passage up y^ stairs & y** going Into y* other Seats & always provided y* If Towne shall see cause to Erect or build an upper Teer of Galleries Then This Grant to be no obstruction y^ unto."

Record remains of the "seating" in March 1719-20 of

the most dignified portions of the meeting house. A group of old men was placed at the communion table, which stood

just in front of and below the pulpit : Lieut. Simon Wood, Nathaniel Lord, John Denison, Joseph Quilter, Jonathan Lumas, Serg. William Hunt, Thomas Dow, John Smith and John Harris. Lord and Lumas saw service in Kin/2: Philip's War in 1675. Dow and Denison were both


wounded in the Narragansett fight in that war, and Deni- son served also in the expedition against Quebec in 1690. Sergt. John Harris was also at Quebec.

"The Men's Short fore seat in the front" was also re- served for the aged and infirm. Here sat John Grow who died on Jan. 9, 1727, "upward of 90 years," James Fuller, William Baker, 70 years old, Thomas Treadwell of the Is- land farm of venerable age, «Tohn Sherwin, aged 76, and Jeremiah Jewett. James Fuller's wife and William Baker's wife were assigned to the "Women's short fore seat front." Behind these sat the long rows of substantial citizens and their wives. In the men's second seat were Mr. John Apple- ton, Capt^ Isaac Appleton, Mr. James Bum am, Mr. Simon Tu thill, Capt. Daniel Ringe, Mr. Samuel Hart, Mr. John Pengrye, Mr. Joseph Whipple, Mr. Francis Crumpton and Mr. Michael Farley, every man of them wearing his military title or Mr. the sign and title of the gentleman.

In the Women's front seat, on the other side of the alley, sat the Widow Wallis, Widow Hart, Mrs. Sarah Hart, Widow Baker, Mrs. Perkins, Mrs. Fowler, Mrs. Smith, Mrs. Bumam, Mrs. Tuthill, Mrs. Appleton, Mrs. Clark, Mrs. Fellows.

The Men's third seat was occupied by Mr. Oliver Apple- ton, Mr. Isaac Fellows, Farmer John Brown, so called to distinguish this important and prosperous citizen from the disreputable Glazier John Brown, Sergt. Robert Wallis, Mr. Samuel Wallis, Nathan* Adams, William Goodhue, Sergt. Caleb Kimball, Thomas Manning, Daniel Warner and En- sign Abraham Tilton; and in the Women's seat across the alley were the Widow Agnes Cowes, Mrs. Baker, Mr. Oliver Appleton's wife, the Widow Perkins, Mrs. Chapman, Mrs. Ringe, Widow Birdley, the wife of Robert Wallis, Mrs. Denison, Mrs. Potter, W^idow Foster and the wife of Farmer John Brown.

Five seats for men were thus appointed and three for women. Seats in the gallery had been assigned years before.


J^one might presume to sit elsewhere, and a seat of superior dignity than the one assigned was particularly prohibited in the Vote of the Town on May 25, 1724, "all persons shall be obliged to Observe the Order of the Committee . . . and shall not sit in an higher seat than that which shall be or- dered for him, under a forfeiture of five shillings for each offence."

The glor^^ of the new meeting house was dimmed, however, bv one sorrowful event. The minister of the church, Rev. William Hubbard, one of the most conspicuous clergymen of his time, laid down his task when the old meeting house was left. As boy and man, he had known the whole history of the Town. He had come with his father, while a lad in his teens, to the new settlement. He had been graduated from Harvard in its first class in 1642, and in 1656 he began to preach as a colleague with Mr. Cobbett. Forty-seven years he had ministered and few remained in the great congregation who had any remembrance of his famous predecessors. In his own person, he linked the new century ^vith the very beginnings of the Town. The in- firmities of age obliged him to give up the active duties of his office on May 6, 1703 and he died on Sept. 14, 1704 at the age of eighty-three.^

Rev. John Rogers, son of President John Rogers of Har- vard and grandson of Rev. Nathaniel Rogers who succeeded Rev. Nathaniel Ward, a Harvard graduate in the class of 1684, had begim his ministry as colleague with Mr. Hubbard in 1686 in his twentieth year, but was not ordained until Oct. 12, 1692. For a few months, from August to Decem- ber, 1702, he performed the whole work of the ministry, but on December 11th, Rev. Jabez Fitch, a young man of thirty years, a graduate of Harvard in the class of 1694, and then a Tutor in the College, accepted the invitation of the church to become a colleague of Mr. Rogers and for the first time in many years a new voice was heard in the pulpit.

s For sketch of his literary work, see "Ipswich, in the Mass. Bay Colony", Vol. I, page 153.


He was ordained Oct. 24, 1703, married Elizabeth Apple- ton, daughter of Col. John, June 10, 1704, and on July 7* of the same year, he bought of William Payne and his wife, Elizabeth, only daughter and heir of William Stewart, the dwelling, known in later years as the Deacon Caleb Lord house,* on the comer of High and Hammatt Streets, re- cently torn down. Here they made their home and here were bom their seven children, Elizabeth, John, James, Margaret, Anne, another James and Mary.

The ministerial salary was a source of constant difficulty. In accordance with the usual custom of the times, it was paid partly in money and partly in wood or produce, and although payment of the ministerial rate was obligatory and could be enforced by legal process, there was frequent delay in the payments. It was ordered on Dec. 26, 1706, by the Town,

That all p'sons y* are rated to y* Ministers Salary shall bring in their respective rates at or on last Tuesday in January & first Tuesday in February next & y* those p'sons y* do not pay at on or before said days shall pay all their rate in money & such rates as y* Collectors are forced to fetch shall have two pence on y*' shilling after said day for their paynes from y* party so neglecting.

For some unimaginable reason, the fire wood that was promised was not easily obtained, and on the same date, it was voted that ten pounds per annum be added to Mr. Bogers's salary "in consideration of want of wood and to make up his salary equal with Mr. Fitch's, w®** was advanced also upon consideration of wood."

Apparently the ministers received their salary in small sums, at irregular periods, and upon their complaint, the Town voted on March 8: 1714-15,

That besides y*' weekly contribution there [shall be] a generall quarterly contribution of Inhabitants for y* paying

* Ipswich In the Mass. Bay Colony, Vol. I, pages 354-355.


of their Tax y' so they may have their Salary in greater sums.

Twenty years of increasing family expense, and constant

uncertainty as to the payment of his salary, exhausted Mr. Fitch's patience, and in the summer of 1724, he received an invitation to the pastorate of the church in Portsmouth, which he accepted on the ground that the Town had fallen short of the original contract made with him at his settle- ment. The whole community was greatly stirred. Not since Rev. John Norton had removed from Ipswich to Bos- ton in 1656, had any Ipswich pastorate been terminated except by death. Never before had the good name of the illustrious Ipswich church been tarnished by the charge that she had not kept her plighted word with her minister, and it was humiliating to her pride, that a minister brought the accusation.

On September 24, 1724, a Committee was appointed by the church and parish to treat with Mr. Fitch and inquire "wherein the Town or parish hath fallen short of their con- tract with him and Labour to persuade him "

This Committee made a lengthy report on October 15***, reviewing the original votes regarding his salary, the suc- cessive votes of the Town authorizing the Selectmen or As- sessors to assess and tax the inhabitants for his support and Mr. Fitch's receipts in the Selectmen's books in hie own hand, "though the Receipts for some of the payments bare date some time after the same was due by contract." They pro- ceeded to declare that this lack of promptness was offset by the "improvement of a Parcel of Land at the end of the Town, nigh Dow's comer," still known as the "Parish Pas- ture," "the Loan of a certain sum of money," (afterward said to have been £100) and "one half of a Considerable Contribution the parish Cheerfully Come Into the Last Tear at his motion & Request." Although Mr. Fitch assured the Committee "that if the Parish would make him a generous offer he would give it a Due Consideration," the Portsmouth


church invited a Council of the Churches and Ministers to meet in Boston on October 27***, and advise regarding their call to him to become their minister, John Wainwright Esq, Thomas Berry Esq and Deacon Nathaniel Knowlton were appointed a Committee to represent the Ipswich church and

Use their best Endeavors to Clear up the good name or Reputation of the parish from any Charge or Imputation which hath or may be alledged against them by the said Mr. Fitch .... and to make it appear so far as they are able that the parish have and Still is willing to give him an Hon- orable Support for his preaching the Grospel to and among us.

This vote was annulled three days afterwards, on October 26*^, as it seemed unwise to lay the whole matter in detail before the Council and it was voted that John Wainwright and Thomas Berry be instructed "to make all possible ob- jections against the proceeding of said Council in Respect to the affair of Mr. Fitch's Removal from us."

A Committee of the Council seems to have come to Ipswich to confer with the church and people, and a meeting had been called for November 11*^, at which it was voted "that a messenger be sent to acquaint some Gentlemen that were in Town that if they had anything to offer to said meeting, they were meet." Much debate ensued concerning the dis- mission of Mr. Fitch to the Church of Christ in Portsmouth, but "it was passed unanimously in the Negative." Fur- thermore, it was "vot^d that we do not see occasion to Leave the Determination of the affair Relating to the Removal of Mr. Fitch to Portsmouth to a Council that we understand ^re acting in said affair," and word was sent to the visiting Gentlemen "that we have voted unanimously not to Dismiss the Rev. Mr. Jabez Fitch." Notwithstanding this action by his church, Mr. Fitch took matters into his own hand and absented himself from his pulpit on Dec. 13, 1724 and the two following Sundays, and again, "from the be- ginning of March to the beginning of May, 1725."


To relieve the senior Pastor from the burden of carrying unaided the onerous requirement of the two long Sabbath services and the weekly lecture, the Parish voted on January 6, 1724-5, that the son of the Pastor, Mr. Nathaniel Rogers, who had been graduated from Harvard in 1721, at the age of nineteen, "be in nomination to assist the Rev. Mr. John Rogers in the work of the ministry, if he be not pre-Ingaged," and also Mr. Benjamin Crocker, a graduate of 1713, and a resident of the Town, if Mr. Rogers could not be secured.

The Parish met on April 7"*, for a "friendly conference with Mr. Fitch,'^ but "nothing of an Agreement could be obtained," and shortly after he was installed in Portsmouth.

The young Nathaniel Rogers seems to have rendered ac- ceptable service, as the Parish invited him on April 27, 1723 to assist his father for three months and another invitation for a similar period was given in July. In November, he was invited to assist for a month and in December, to serve for a quarter of the next year, 1726, and then for another month, and at last in April, 1726, two other candidates for the vacancy appeared, Charles Chauncey and William Welstead, and each of these was invited to assist the Pastor for a month on the Sabbath and Lecture day.

Meanwhile at the March term of the Sessions Court in Ipswich, 1726, the Rev. Jabez Fitch brought suit against the inhabitants of Ipswich, alleging that they had paid him nothing from March 1st to Dec. 13"*, 1724. Although the Parish appointed a Committee to contest the suit, calmer judgment prevailed, and eventually the matter was left to referees, and settled by the payment of £65, 10s. No doubt there were many friends who warmly espoused the minister's cause. Mrs. Fitch, as has been mentioned, was daughter of Col. John Appleton. Her mother was sister of the Senior

Pastor, and she was own cousin of Rev. Nathaniel Rogers and the other children of Rev. John, all important people in the church and community. She was sister as well of Margaret, wife of President Holyoke of Harvard.


This old and sharply contested wrangle over the salaij of Mr. Fitch was scarcely settled, before the Senior Pastor felt obliged by stress of his own straitened finances to present his plea, though the time seemed inopportune. His own pathetic letter tells the simple tale of his need, and the small talk of the Parish.

To the Inhabitants of the first parish in Ipswich, Assem- bled October the 6"*, 1726.


Notwithstanding In my opinion & I am apt to think In yours also, that my Sallary for Diverse years past has not been made good to me in valine however it might be in Sum by the Several payments made in those years whereof I have given Due Receipts from time to time [without making any further Demands or giving the Least occasion l^at I know of for those Reports that have been Raised of Late to your Disturbance as well as mine]. And Notwithstanding It was the want of an Erlier Consideration of & Allowance for the Difference of Species which necessitated my Borrow- ing of the publick & mortgaging a Good part of my Estate therefor and Selling one p* after another.

Yet I now Leave the whole to a further Consideration of the good people whom I have Served near Thirty and Seven years to the best of my power. And with whom I would Live in Love and Dy in peace. ^And shall be Ready to give a more general & full Discharge to the year Current whenever the parish shall See meet to Call for it.

From yo' unworthy Servant In the work of the ministry. John Rogers.

The parish having taken Into Consideration the message in writing from our Rev* Pastor, M^ John Rogers, Respect- ing the payments made him of his Sallary & of his Receipts therefor and that he is willing to give a General and full Discharge to the parish when desired to the year Current, which they expect from him, Therefore Voted tiiiat the parish do unanimously, freely & Cheerfully promise and Engage to Cancel & Discharge the mortgage the said Mr. Rogers has given to the Town of Ipswich for the Sum of One Hundred


Pounds part of the Towns proportion of the Last Fifty Thousand Pounds Loan."*

Settlement with Mr. Fitch having been made, the minds of the people were at last composed and on August 16, 1726, the Church voted on the several candidates for the ministerial office. Nathaniel Rogers received 35, William Welstead 8 and Charles Chauncey 1. At this far remove, it is hard to understand the large preponderance of the vote for Mr. Kogers. Charles Chauncey, the great grandson of President Chauncey of Harvard, and grandson of Rev. Isaac Chauncey, an eminent Puritan minister, had been graduated at Har- vard in 1721 in his seventeenth year, and was regarded as one of the most brilliant scholars who had ever taken his degree at Cambridge. His slight form and delicate health may have weigh