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JULY, 1S61.


THE present " Synopsis of North American Neuroptera" has been prepared by Dr. Hermann Hagen of Konigsberg (one of the highest living authorities on this subject), at the special request of the Smithsonian Institution, from materials in considerable part supplied by the collections of the Institution, or furnished for the purpose, by correspondents, at its request. It is hoped that the publication of this work and its distribution throughout the country will call attention to the insects of this order, and result in the collection of fuller materials, to be used hereafter in the preparation of a more perfect report.

For the purpose of making the present work serve the purpose of a report on the Neuroptera of the New World, a list of the names of the known South American species has been added. Some of these have not yet been published, but descriptions of them will shortly be presented to the world by Dr. Hagen in some one of the German scientific journals.

The manuscript of this work was furnished by Dr. Hagen in Latin, and it has been translated into English by Mr. P. R. Uhler of Baltimore. To him, and to Baron R. Osteu Sacken, the Insti- tution is under obligations for the careful examination and cor- rection of the proof sheets.


Secretary S. I.


WASHINGTON, June, 1861.




THE following Synopsis of the Neuroptera of North America has been prepared in accordance with the desire of the Smithsonian Institution, and contains all the known species found hitherto in the United States, in the English and Russian colonies, Mexico, Central America, and the West Indies. Many species described originally as belonging to the last-named countries, may hereafter be found in the southern parts of the United States.

The materials upon which the Synopsis has been based are the following:

1. Species furnished by the Smithsonian Institution, chiefly Odonata, collected by Capt. J. Pope, U. S. A., on the Pecos River, Western Texas (lat. 32°, long. 104°), by Dr. Berlandier and Lt. Couch, U. S. A., at Matarnoras, and by Dr. Engelmann at St. Louis.

2. The very numerous species collected by Baron Osten Sacken in different parts of the United States, particularly at Washington, at Trenton Falls, at Savannah and Dalton in Georgia, at Berkeley Springs in Virginia, in Florida, in Cuba, on the St. Lawrence River, and at Chicago.

3. A considerable number of Odonata, collected by Mr. Abbot in Georgia, and furnished by the late Mr. Escher-Zollickofer of Zurich.

4. A considerable number of Odonata, collected by the late Mr. Guex at Bergen Hill in New Jersey, and communicated by Prof. Schaum of Berlin.

5. A considerable number of Neuroptera from California, Ma- ryland, Illinois, and North Red 'River (from Mr. Robert Kenni- cott), furnished by Mr. P. R. Uhler of Baltimore.

6. Some species collected in Florida by Mr. Norton, and at New York by Mr. Calverly.


7. Other species collected in South Carolina by Mr. Zimmer- mann, and furnished by the late Prof. Germar of Halle.

8. A considerable number of Neuroptera collected in Cuba and furnished by Prof. Poey of Havana.

9. A considerable number of Neuroptera collected in Mexico and supplied by Mr. de Saussure of Geneva.

10. My own collection, containing the types of Winthem, de- scribed by Prof. Burmeister, and some species furnished by the late Mr. Say.

11. Many species collected in the Russian colonies and in Cali- fornia, communicated by Mr. Meuetries from the Imperial Museum of St. Petersburg, and by Colonel Motschulsky.

12. The Neuroptera of North America of the Museum at Ber- lin, furnished by Dr. Gerstaecker.

13. The Neuroptera of North America of the Museum at Yi- enna, communicated by Mr. Kollar".

14. The Neuroptera of North America of the collection of the Baron Selys Longchamps at Liege, with the types described by Messrs. Ratnbur, Latreille, Palisot de Beauvois, contained in Ser- ville's collection, and some supplied by Mr. Asa Fitch.

15. Some types, chiefly from Labrador, described by Mr. Bur- meister, and contained in the collection of Mr. Sonirner at Altona.

16. The very great number of Neuroptera of the British Museum in London, described by Mr. Fr. Walker, chiefly from Canada and the polar regions, which I examined at London in 1857, with the kind permission of Dr. J. E. Gray.

I have endeavored to cite the literature of the subject as com- pletely as possible. Besides the printed works, I have taken ad- vantage of written communications made by Mr. Haldeman and Mr. Uhler on those species, which had been described by them. The rare memoir of the late Mr. Say, "Godman's Western Quarterly Reporter, Vol. II," could not be procured, except in a manuscript copy kindly communicated by Baron Osten Sacken.

An exclamation mark (!) has been added to every species con- tained in my own collection, or described by me from actual exa- mination.

Where an (!) has been added to the name of the author, I have seen the types which he described.

The foregoing statements show that the Synopsis has been prin- cipally composed from species which I myself have examined, and


which can be considered as undoubtedly fixed. There are, how- ever, some, especially from the British Museum, which are not entirely certain, the time I could spend at London not being suffi- cient to determine all the species. The number, however, of spe- cies mentioned in the Synopsis not examined by myself is but small.

I have added a Catalogue of all the species of South American Neuroptera hitherto described, and of the new species contained in my collection. All the yet undescribed species have been added to the present Catalogue, as their publication, which has already partly been effected (Gomphidae), will soon be terminated.

There can be no doubt that the species named in the Synopsis and in the Catalogue constitute only a fraction of the Neurop- terous Fauna of America; may its incompleteness be soon shown by a multitude of new discoveries.


KOENIGSBERG, 8th April, 1860.

Note. The measurements given are in millimetres. A millimetre is equal to .039 of the English inch, or about .04 (= z';). Multiplying, then, any number of millimetres by four, and setting off two places of decimals, will at once give us the inches and fractions.



Advertisement .......... iv

Preface v

Table of Contents ix

Authorities . . . . . xi

North American Neuroptera ....... xi

South American Neuroptera ....... xvi

Analytical tables .......... xix

Synopsis of North American Neuroptera ...... 1



Fam. II. EMBIDINA ...... 7

Fam. III. PSOCINA ...... 7


Fam. V. EPHEMERINA ...... 38

Fam. VI.* ODONATA 55

Tribe I. Agrionina ..... 56

Sub-fam. I. Calopterygina ... 56

Sub-fam. II. Agrionina .... 62

Legion I. Pseudostigmata . . 62

Region II. Agrionina ... 65

Tribe II. Aeschnina ..... 98

Sub-fam. III. Gornphina .... 98

Sub-fam. IV. Aeschnina .... 117

Tribe III. Libellulina 132

Sub-fam. V. Cordulina . . . .132 Sub-fam. VI. Libelluliua . . . .141



Fam. VIII. HEMEROBINA ..... 196

Fam. IX. PANORPINA ...... 240

* Erroneously given as Fam. V. on p. 55.

AB . _&.


Fam. X. PHRYGANINA ..... 249

Sub-fain. I. Phrygauides . . . 249

Sub-fam. II. Limnopbilides . . . 253

Sub-fam. III. Sericostomides . . . 270

Sub-fain. IV. Leptocerides . . . 275

Sub-fam. V. Hydropsychides . . 284 Sub-fain. VI. Rhyacophilides . . .295 List of South American Neuroptera. PSEUDONEUROPTERA.


Fam. II. EMBIDINA ...... 301


Fam. IV. PERLIXA 302

Fain. V. EPHEMEKINA ..... 304

Fam. VI. ODONATA ...... 305

Tribe I. Agrionina ..... 305

Sub-fam. I. Calopterygina . . . 305

Sub-fain. II. Agrioniua .... 307

Tribe II. Aeschuina 312

Sub-fam. III. Gomphina . . . .312

Sub-fam. IV. Aeschnina . . . 314

Tribe III. Libellulina 315

Sub-fain. V. Cordulina .... 315 Sub-fam. VI. Libellulina . . .315 NEUROPTERA.



Fam. IX. PANORPINA ...... 327


List of genera of North American Neuroptera 330

Distribution of species of do 333

List of genera of South American Neuroptera 334

Summary 336

Glossary 337

Index 345

Corrections and additions 347



Bartram, Jolm. Observations on the Dragon-Fly, or Libellula of Pennsylvania. Philos. Transact. 1750, XLVI, 323. Observations upon the metamorphosis of the Oclonata in general.

Blanchard, Emile. Histoire naturelle des Insectes, etc. Paris, 1840, 1841, etc. 3 vols. 150 pi. Contains description of some typical forms from N. America, but no new species.

Les planches dans Cuvier regne animal, edit. Masson, 1836 1846,

8vo. Corydalis cornuta and Chauliodes pectinicornis are figured in this work.

Browne, Patrice. The Civil and Natural History of Jamaica. London, 1789 (1756), fol. pp. 437. Four species of Odonata are mentioned : "1. Tota viridis ; 2. Fusca tenuis, ad oculos et anum coeruleo-nitens ; 3. Maxima rufula, pectore crassiori ; 4. Tenuior tota coerulea. These insects are very common in Jamaica."

Burmeister, Hermann. Haudbuch der Entomologie. Neurop- tera, II, Part I. Berlin, 1839, 8vo. 60 species from N. America are described in this work ; 36 of them are new.

Zoologischer Hand Atlas. Berlin, 1836— 1843. Fol., 41 pi. Termes

flavipes and its nympha are figured. (I have examined the types of Mr. Burrneister.)

Coqueliert, Allt. JJoli. Illustratio iconographica insectorum quse in museis parisinis observavit J. C. Fabricius. Paris, 1799 1804. Fol., 30 pi. Libellula eponina figured.

Curtis, Jolm. Description of the Insects brought home by Com- mander James Clark. Ross's Second Voyage. App. Nat. Hist. 1831, 4to. pi. Tinodes hirtipes described.

Drury, Drew. Illustrations of Natural History, etc. London, 1770 1782, 4to. 3 vols. (ed. Westwood, 1837). Several species are figured and described.

Duncan, J. Introduction to Entomology. London, 1840. Svo., pi. Libellula axillena figured by Mr. Westwood.


EricIJSOll, Fr. W. Beitraege zu einer Monographic von Mantispa. Germar's Zeitschrift f. Entomologie, 1839, 8vo. I, Part I, 147 173, 1 pi. Contains three species.

Insekten in Schomburgk's Reise in Guyana, 1848, Svo. III. Con- tains several species from the West Indies.

Falbricius, J. C. Entomologia Systematica et Supplementa. Haf- nise, 1792 1798, Svo. 5 vols. Seventeen species are described, nine of them are new. (The same are contained in the works previously published by this author, viz : Systema Entomologiae, 1775 ; Species Insectorum, 1781; and Mantissa Insectorum, 1787.)

Fatol'icillS, Otto. Fauna Groenlandica. Hafnise, 1780, Svo. Contains Libellula virgo (erroneously), Phryganea rJwmbica, Termes divina- torium. See Schioedte.

Fitcls, Asa. First Report on the Noxious, Beneficial, and other Insects of the State of New York. Albany, 1855, Svo. Thirty-six species of Chrysopina and Hemerobina are described, mostly new.

Winter Insects of eastern New York, from Dr. Emmons' Journal of

Agricultxire and Science, 1847, vol. v, p. 274. Contains two spe- cies of Boreus and two of Perla new to science.

De Geer, diaries. Memoires pour servir a 1'histoire des insectes. Stockholm, 4to, 1752 1778, 7 vols. Four species are described, two of them new.

GielJel, C. G.— Fauna der Vorwelt, etc. Leipzig, Svo. 1856. T. II, P. I, Insecta. Termes debilis included in gum Anime, described by Prof. Heer, erroneously, as a succinic insect.

Gosse. Canadian Naturalist. I have not seen this work, which contains two new Pteronarcys.

Gray, G. R.— In E. Griffith's Animal Kingdom. London, 1824—1833. Svo. 16 vols. Contains some new species.

Glleriii-UIeneville, F. E.— Iconographie duRegne animal. I have not seen this work, which contains one new Palingenia.

Guilds lag, L,andsdo\viie. The generic characters of Formicaleo, with the description of two new species (from the West Indies). Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 1829, vol. xvi, p. 47.

Hagen, H. Monographic von Termes in Linnsea, X, XII, XIV. 1855 1860.

Revue des Odonates ; Monographic des Calopterygines ; Monogra-

phie des Gomphines. (cf. Selys Longchamps.)

Haldemail. Description of the Agrion veneri-notatum. Proceed. Acad. Philad. 1844. Termes nigriceps, ibid. 1853, June.

Corydaliis cornutus. Jourii. Acad. Boston, 1848, with plates.

Harris, Dr. T. W. A Treatise on some of the Insects of New England,

which are injurious to Vegetation. Boston, 1852. I regret much, not to have seen this excellent work. Contains one Chrysopa. Heer, O. Die Insectenfauua der Tertiaergebilde von Oeuingen uud


Radoboj. Leipzig, 1849, 4to. T. II. Contains Termes debilis as succinic insect (included in Gum Anime).

K.il'l>y, W. Fauna boreali- Americana, etc. Norwich, 1837, 4to. Con- tains a List of arctic Insects, Libellula viryo and Phryganea rhom- b/ca from 0. Fabricius, and Tinodes hirtipes from J. Curtis ; besides p. 252 the descriptions of four species taken in lat. 65 68. Agrion puella probably erroneously determined, and three new species, Perla bicaudata (erroneously), Limnephilus ncbulosus suidfemoralis; the descriptions are very incomplete.

K.lug, Friedr. Monographic der Panorpatae. Act. Acad. Berolin. 1836, 4to., 1 plate. Contains five species, three new ones from. N. America.

fi.oleiia.fi, F. Genera et Species Trichopterorum. Part I. Prague, 1848, 4to. Contains three species from Greenland, Labrador, and N. America, one of them new.

Systematisches Verzeichniss der dem Verfasser bekannten Phry-

ganiden und deren Synonymik. Wien. Entom. Monatschrift, T. Ill, 1859, p. 15. Contains the names of six species from N. Ame- rica, four of them new.

Genera et Species Trichopterorum. Part II. Nouv. Memoir, de la

Soc. Imper. des Naturalistes a Moscou. 1859, T. XI, 4. I have not seen this work, which contains the descriptions of the species mentioned in the foregoing work.

S4.oBIa !', V. Naturgeschichte der schaedlichen Insekten. Wien, 1837, 4to. Contains Ttrmes flavipes, injurious in the warmhouses- of Schoenbrunn and Vienna. This description has been omitted in the translation of this work by Mr. London.

l,atrellle, P. Histoire naturelle, etc. des Insectes. Paris, 8vo. 1792 —1805, vol. xiv.

Genera Crustaceorum et Insectorum. Paris, 4to. 1806 1809, vol.

iv. Some species from N. America are described, but none of them are new.

i.eidy, J. Internal Anatomy of Corydalus cornutus in its three stages of existence (with Haldeman).

Licliteiisteiii. Catalogus musei ditissimi (Holthuisen). Hamburg, 1796, 8vo. Part III. Contains one new Ephemera.

ILinsie, C.— Systema Naturae ed. XII. 1767, 8vo. Contains three spe- cies from N. America, two of which are described previously in Centuria Insector. 1763, 4to., or in Amoeuit. Acad., vol. vi. The ed. xiii, by Mr. Gmelin, contains several species described by dif- ferent authors.

V. Motsclllllslty, V. Two species of Termes from N. America are mentioned in the Etudes Entomologiques, T. IV. I find mentioned Etudes VIII, p. 11, two species of Phryganina from N. America, Leptocera flexuosa Haldeman. and Leptocera 8-7naculata Haldeman. I do not know if, or where, these species are described.


E. Several species, chiefly Perlina, are described in Ento- mological Magaz., vol. v, and in Annals of Nat. History, vol. xiii, by this author.

Wewport, Cr. On the Genus Pteronarcys. Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., vol. xx, and Annals of Nat. Histor., vol. xiii, contains, moreover, some species of Perlina.

Olivier, G. Encyclopedic methodique, vol. vii, 4to. Some species of N. America are described by this author.

Palisot Beativois. Insectes recueillis en Afrique et en Arnerique. Paris, 1805 1821, fol. Three species are described by this author.

Perty, M. Delectus animalium articulatorum, etc. Monachise, 1830, 4to. One species of Termes from the West Indies has been described.

Pictet, F. Histoire naturelle, etc. des insectes Neuropteres. Part I, Perlides ; Part II, Ephemerines. Geneve, 1841 1845, 8vo., with pi. color. Numerous species are figured and described in this first- rate work.

Reiclientoacii. Volks-naturgeschichte. Termes flavipes has been figured in this work.

RaiaalJim', P. Histoire naturelle des Neuropteres. Paris, 1842, 8vo., with plates (forms a part of the Suites a Buffon, published by Ro- ret). Numerous species are perfectly described, mostly new.

Say? Til. Descriptions of insects belonging to the order Neuroptera Linn. Latr., collected by the expedition authorized by J. C. Cal- houn, etc. under the command of Major S. H. Long, in Godman's Western Quarterly Reporter, 1823, vol. ii, No. 2, article iv, pp. 160, 165. This very rare work contains four species of Phryganina, three Ephemerina, one Myrmeleou, one Bittacus, and four Perlina, well described.

- Nine Species of Neuroptera (three Ephem., one Ascalaphus, two Hemerob., one Chauliodes, two Phrygan.), in Keating's narrative of an expedition to the source of St. Peter's River, etc., under the command of Major Long. Philadelphia, 1824, 8vo., vol. ii, p. 205.

- American Entomology, vol. ii, 1825, Svo. Contains six figures (two Mantispa and four Phryganea), described and figured.

- Descriptions of new N. American Neuropterous Insects, and obser- vations on some already described by (the late) Th. Say. Journ. Acad. of Nat. Sci. of Philadelphia, 1839, vol. viii, Part I, p. 9—46. Contains the descriptions of forty-nine species (ten Aeschua, twen- ty-one Libellula, three Calopteryx, three Lestes, four Agrion, four Baetis, one Ephemera, two Formicaleo, one Chrysopa), mostly new to science. Unfortunately the work of Prof. Burmeister was pub- lished at the same time and contains some species described by Mr. Say under different names.

Savigny, J. C. Description de 1'Egypte. Paris, 1825, fol. Contains the figure of one species of Libellula (L.jlavescens), found in N. America.





// 2 Z /


Scllioeclte, J. C. Arthropoden Groenlands, in Rink, geographischer,

etc., Beschreibung Groenlands and in Berlin Entom. Zeitschr.,

1859, t. Ill, p. 134. Contains four species (one Ephem., one Hem-

erob., two Phrygan.). Sclmeidei', W. G. Symbols ad Monographiam generis Chrysopre

Leacli. Vratislavise, 1851, Svo., with plat, color. Contains seven

species, well described and figured. De §elys L-ongclaamps, E. Revue des Odonates ou Libellules

d'Europe avec la collaboration de H. Hagen. Paris, 1850, Svo.

(Memoir. Soc. R. Science de Liege, vol. vi). Two species, Lib.

hudsonica, p. 53, and Agrion Doubledayi, p. 209, are described in

this work.

Synopsis des Calopterygines. Bullet. Acad. Bruxelles, 1853, t. xx.

Monographic des Calopterygines avec collab. H. Hagen. Paris,

1854, Svo. (Mum. Soc. R. Science de Liege, vol. ?). Fourteen spe- cies from N. America are described in this work.

Synopsis des Gornphines. Bullet. Acad. Bruxell. 1854, t. xxi.

Monographic des Gomphines, avec collab. H. Hagen. Paris, 1857,

Svo. (Mem. Soc. R. Science de Liege, vol. ?). Thirty-four species from N. America are described in this work.

Additions au Synopsis des Calopterygines. Bullet. Acad. Bruxell.

ser. 2, 1859, T. VII, No. 7.

Additions au Synopsis des Gomphines. Bullet. Acad. Bruxell.,

ser. 2, 1859, T. VII, No. 8.

Neuropteres de 1'isle de Cuba, de la Sagra Hist. Cuba, 1857, fol., T.

VII, p. 183—201, or in Poey, Ins. Cuba, 8vo., p. 435—473. Con- tains thirty-nine species from the West Indies, chiefly Odonata ; several of them are new to science.

Sloane, H. A voyage to the islands Madeira, Barbadoes, Nieves, St. Christopher's, and Jamaica, with the natural history, etc. of insects. London, 1707 1725, fol., 2 vols. Ten species of Libellula from Jamaica have been described in this work: 1. Libellula rufa major (an L. abdominalis?) ; 2. L. rufa minor (an L. simplex?); 3. L. maxima ccerulea aut viridis (an Aeschna ingens?) ; 4. L. purpurea (Lib. discolor); 5. L. coerulea minor (Agrion spec.).

Stephens, J. F.— Illustrations of British Entomology. London, 8vo., 1835. Mandibulata, vol. VI. Some species of European Neurop- tera mentioned in this work have been found in N. America.

Swederuis, ST. §. Two species of Panorpa have been described by this author, Vetensk. Acad. nya Handl. Stockholm, 1787, T. VIII.

Uhler, P. R. Contributions to the Neuropterology of the United States. Proceed. Acad. of Nat. Sc. Philad., 1857, March, p. 87. Seven spe- cies of Odonata are described.

Walker, F. Catalogue of the Specimens of Neuropterous Insects in the Collection of the British Museum. London, 8vo., Part I, 1852 (Phryganides, Perlides), p. 1—192; Part II, 1853 (Sialidae— Ne-


mopterides),p.l93 476; Part III. 1853 (Tennitidse— Ephemeridze),

p. 477— 585; Part IV, 1853 (Odonata, Calopterygiuse),p. 586 658.

In this work 234 species from N. America are described; numerous

of them are new, chiefly from Canada and the Arctic regions. Wesiliael, C. Sur les Hemerobides de Belgique. Bullet. Acad. Brux-

ell., 1841, vol. viii, p. 203. One species of Europe described here

has been found in N. America. Westwood, J. O. Monograph of the genus Panorpa. Trans. Entom.

Soc. Lond., vol. iv, with plates. Contains fourteen species from

N. America, some of them new.

On the genus Mantispa. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., new ser., vol. i,

with plates. Contains three species from N. America.

Introduction to the modern Classification of Insects. London, 1840,

8vo., vol. ii. Contains Termes flavipes, figured.

Zetterstedt, J. W. Insecta Lappouica. Lipsise, 1840, 4to. Some species from Lapland have been found in the Arctic regions of N. America.


(The authorities mentioned above for North American Neuroptera are omitted.)

Blaiicliard, E.^-Insectes du voyage dans 1'AmSrique meridionale de M. Alcide d'Orbigny. 4to. pi.

Insectes dans C. Gay historia fisica de Chili. Paris, 1851, 4to. I

have not seen this work; a few Neuroptera are described and figured.1

Fisclier voii Waldlieilll, G. Notice sur quelques Orthopteres et Neuropteres du Bresil/ Bullet. Acad. Moscow, 1834, T. VII, p. 322, 1 pi. col. Two Mantispa are described and figured.

Hagen, H. Neuroptera von Mossarnbic in Peters Reise, T. II. Written and printed 1853, but not yet published. Two Terines from Bra- zil are described.

Monographic der Gattung Oligoueuria. Stettin, Entomol. Zeit.

1856, T. XVI, p. 2G2.

Description of Mantispa chilensis, in Stettin. Entom. Zeit., 1859, T.

XX, p. 408.

i£irl}y? W. Description of the Agrion briglitwdli in Trans. Linn. Soc. London, 1825, T. XIV.

i Twenty-six new species are described, and most of them figured. (Osten Sackeu.)


liollar, V. Brasiliens vorziiglich lastige Insecten in Dr. Pohl's Reise in Brasilien. Wien, 1832, 4to. Two species of Termes are de- scribed and figured.

Pictet, F. J. Description de quelques nouvelles especes de Neurop- teres du Musee de Geneve. Mem. Soc. Phys. Geneve, 1836, T. VII, p. 299. Bittacus blanchetti and Macronema lineatum are described and figured.

Percheron, A. Genera des Insectes, with pi. Paris, 1831, 8vo. (with. M. Guerin). One species of Palingenia has been described.

lie t/ ins, A. C. De Geer genera et species insectorum ex auctoris scrip- tis extr. Lipsise, 1783, 8vo.

Rengger, J. Reise nach Paraguay. Aarau, 1835, 8vo. Some species of Termes have been described in this work.

Sel>a, A. Locupletissimi rerum naturalium thesauri accurata descriptio et iconibus expressio. Amsterdam, 1734 1764, fol., 4 vols. Few species of Odonata are figured.

Serville, A. Les Neuropteres, dans le t. X d'Encyclopedie methodique de M. Olivier. (Mantispa semihyalina.)

Tlllinlierg, C. P. Fauna Surinamensis. Upsalia, 1822, 4to.

Fauna Cayennensis. Upsaliao, 1823, 4to.

Fauna Brasiliensis. Upsalis, 1823, 4to.

Fauna Americse meridioualis. Upsalise, 1S23, 4to., 3 parts. I have

not been able to use this work, which contains the complete list of all the species described, (cf. Stett. Entom. Zeit. XVIII, p. 202.)

Wel>er, F. Observations entomologicse. Kiel, 1801, 8vo. (Ephemera

atrostoma.) West wood, J. O. Characters of Embia. Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond.,

1837, T. XVII, with pi.





Mandibulate insects with an incomplete metamorphosis (active pupa) ; lower lip mostly cleft ; four membranaceous, reticulate wings (rarely with rudimentary wings or apterous) ; antennae either subulate, and then the tarsi three- to five-articulate, or setiform, or filiform, in which case the tarsi are two- to four-articulate.

FAMILIES. Termitina, Embidina, Psocina, Perlina, Ephemerina, Odonata.


Mandibulate insects with complete metamorphosis (inactive pupa) ; lower lip entire ; four membranaceous, more or less reticulate wings rarely with rudimentary wings or apterous) ; antennae setiform, filiform, clavate, capitate, or pectinate ; tarsi five-articulate. FAMILIES. Sialina, flemerobina, Panorpina, Phryganina.


Four or two distinct wings ;

Antennae inconspicuous, subulate, short and slender.

Anterior and posterior wings nearly of the same length ; tarsi triarti-

culate. Fam. VI. ODONATA.

Posterior wings either smaller or wanting ; tarsi four- or five-articu- late. Fam. V. EPHEMERINA. Antennae mostly conspicuous, setiform, filiform, clavate, capitate, or

pectinate. Tarsi two- or three-articulate ;

Wings equal. Fam. II. EMBIDINA.

1 These tables, prepared by Baron Ostea Sacken at the request of the Institution, are to be considered as merely provisional in their nature, and as not aiming at a natural arrange- ment of the families.


Wings unequal.

Posterior wings smaller. Fam. III. PSOCINA (in part).

Posterior wings broader, or at least of the same size with the anterior ones. Fam. IV. PERLINA (in part). -

Tarsi four-articulate; wings equal. Fam. I. TERMITINA (in part). _ Tarsi five- (sometimes apparently four-articulate). Posterior wings with no anal space ; not folded.

Mouth more or less rostrated. Fam. IX. PANORPINA (in part). Mouth not rostrated (at the utmost only conical).

Fam. VIII. HEMEROBINA. Posterior wings with a folded anal space.1

Wings reticulate. Fam. VII. SIALINA.

Transverse veins rather few. Fam. X. PHRYGANINA (in part). Apterous, or with rudimentary wings ;

Mouth rostrated. Fam. IX. PANORPINA (in part).

Mouth not rostrated.

Tarsi five-articulate. Fam. X. PHRYGANINA (in part).

Tarsi four-articulate. Fam. I. TERMITINA (in part).

Tarsi three-articulate.

Apterous, or with two rudimentary wings of a leathery substance.

Fam. III. PSOCINA (in part). Four rudimentary wings, still with distinct neuration.

Fam. IV. PERLINA (in part).

i The anal space is absent in a few Phryganina.






Body depressed, ovate; head free; wings equal, mem- branaceous, deciduous ; tarsi 4-articulate.


Head small, two ocelli ; prothorax large, transverse, oblong ; costal area veined ; tarsi furnished with an apical plautula.

1. C. castaneus !

Termes castaneus Burm. ! II. 764, 3. Term.es anticus Walk.! Catal. 523, 31. Termes guatimalce Walk.! Catal. 528, 38. Caloterm. castaneus Hag.! Linn. XII, 38, 1 ; tab. ii, fig. 2 ; tab. iii, fig. 2.

Chestnut-color, beneath, antenna? and feet luteous ; the wings tinged with brown, margin and costal veins infuscate ; head ellip- tical; prothorax quadrangular, anteriorly a little sinuated; median nervule approaching the subcostal one, its apex bifurcated.

Var. Smaller, pale, wings hyaline. (Cuba, St. Domingo.)

Length to tip of wings 13 20 millimetres. Length of body 6 8 millim. Expanse of wings 23 36 millira.

Hob. San Francisco, California (Chamisso) ; Honduras (Miller) ; Guatimala (Deby) ; Cuba; Porto-Rico; St. Domingo, Port-au- Prince (Ehrenberg) ; Columbia, Venezuela (Moritz, Appun) ; -Brazil (Olfers) ; Pvio (Schott) ; St. Leopoldo ; Chile; Isle of France (?). Collection of de Selys Longchamps.

NOTE. An exclamation point after the specific name at the head of an article shows that the description has been made by the author from a spe- cimen. When placed after a reference, it shows that the author has seen the type of the description. 1


2. C. marginipennis !

Termes marginipenne Latr.! Humboldt, Recueil, II, 111 ; tab. xxxix, fig. 8. Term, mexicanus Walker! Catal. 528,39. Caloterm. mar- ginipennis Hag.! Linn. XII, 47, 6 ; XIV, 100.

Fulvous, beneath, antennas and feet luteous ; wings whitish, margin and costal veins yellowish ; head square ; prothorax. square, anteriorly emarginate ; median and subcostal veins separated.

A smaller specimen from San Diego does not differ in coloring.

Var. Smaller, fuliginous, beneath, antenna? and feet fuscous ; wings dirty-fuscous, margin and costal veins infuscate. (California.)

Length to tip of wings 18 19 millimetres. Body 7 8 millim. Expanse of wings 31 millim.

Hab. Mexico (Humboldt, Muehlenpford, Deppe) ; Cuantla (Saussure) ; San Francisco and San Diego, California.

3. C. posticus !

Calotermes posticus Hag.! Linn. XII, G7, 15.

Piceous, base of the antennae and feet bright yellow ; wings

; head square ; prothorax oblong.

Length of body 4^ millim. Hab. St. Thomas (Moritz).

4. C. brevis !

Termes breris Walk.! Catal. 524, 33— Term, indecisus Walk.! Catal. 524, 32.— Term, flavicollis Walk.! (in part) Catal. 502, 1 (Imago), 503 (Soldier).— Term, lucifinjus Walk, (in part)! Catal. 505. 3.— Calo- term. brevis Hag.! Linn. XII, 68, 16; tab. ii, fig. 6; tab. iii, fig. 5. Linn. XIV, p. 101.

Fulvous, beneath, antenna? and feet pale ; wings hyaline, costal veins yellowish, linear, head square ; prothorax large, oblong, anteriorly emarginate ; median nervure distant, curved before the apex, united to the subcostal one.

Length to tip of wings 9 millim. Body 4 millim. Expanse of wings 16 millim.

Hab. Mexico (Deppe), Yera-Cruz (Salle) ; Central America ; Jamaica (Gosse); Cuba (Poeppig, Osten Sacken) ; St. Thomas (Moritz), St. Fe de Bogota; Brazil (Olfers, Schott, Natterer, Kuemmel).

The variety from Mexico has the median nervure, sometimes not curved, nor joined to the subcostal one. Is it a distinct species ?



Head large ; ocelli absent ; prothorax small ; costal area veined ; tarsi with an apical plantula.

1. T. angtisticollis !

Termes castaneus Walk.! Catal. 506, 4. Termops. angitsticollis Hag.! Linn. XII, 75, 1 ; tab. ii, fig. 1 ; tab. iii, figs. 6, 41. Linn. XIV, 101.

Rufous, beneath paler, mouth infuscate ; wings dusky hyaline, costal veins rufous ; head oval, flat ; prothorax small, semicircular.

Length to tip of wings 26 millim. Body 11 millim. Expanse of wings 46 millim.

Hab. Louisiana (Pfeiffer) ; San Francisco, California (Hart- weg) ; Ft. Steilacoom, Puget Sound (Dr. Suckley).


2. T. occidentis !

Termes occidentis Walk.! Catal. 529, 41. Termops. occidentis Hag.! Linn. XII, 77, 2 ; tab. i, fig. 8. Linn. XIV, 101.

Soldier. Fulvous, broad, head thick, rounded ; prothorax ante- riorly strongly emargiuate ; meso- and metathorax with the poste- rior angles produced.

Length of body 14 millim.

Hab. West coast of Central America (Wood).

The genus of this species is doubtful; it may, perhaps, be Ter- mopsis angusticollis Hagen.


Head large, rounded, two ocelli ; prothorax heart-shaped, small ; costal area free ; plantula absent.

1. T. flavipes !

Termes flavipes Kollar! Naturgesch. schadl. Ins. 411. Burm. II, 768, 14. Burm. Zoolog. Hand-atlas, tab. xxvii, figs. 9, 10. Westw.! Intro- duct. II, 14; tab. Iviii, figs. 12, 14, 15. Hag.! Linn. XII, 182, 26 ; XIV, 107. Reichenbach Volksnaturgescli. fig. col. Latr. Diction, d'hist. nat. XXII. Termes fron tale Haldem.! (teste Osten Sacken), Proc. Acad. Philad. 1844, II, 55.

Chestnut color ; head and prothorax black-brown ; antennae brownish, annulated with pale ; mouth, tibiae and tarsi yellow ;


wings whitish, a little roughened, costal veins yellowish ; head quadrangular, flat, with a distinct fovea in the middle, ocelli dis- tant, prothorax cordiforra.

Length to tip of wings 9 millim. Body 5 millim. Expanse of wings 16 millim.

Hub. U. S. (Bosc, Beauvois, Schaum) ; Cleveland, Ohio (Le Coiite) ; Cincinnati ; Paduca (Motschulsky) ; Pennsylvania (Hal- deman) ; Maryland (Uhler) ; Washington (Osten Sacken) ; Caro- lina (Zimmerman) ; Eutaw, Alabama ; Florida (Osten Sacken) ; Mexico, Matamoras, Tamaulipas (Couch) ; Europe (Plant-bouses of Schonbrunn, Kollar).

Specimens from Florida are smaller and paler, but not distinct.

2. T. morio!

Termes morio Latr.! Hist. Nat. XIII, 69, 3. Diet, d'hist. nat. XXII, 3. Burm.l II, 767, 11. Hagen ! Linn. XII, 201, 34; tab. iii, fig. 29. Linn. XIV, 122. Termes cornigera Motschulsky! Etudes Entom. IV, 10.

Pitchy-black ; antennae, mouth, feet and venter yellowish ; wings opaque, blackish-gray, costal veins black-brown ; head flat, quad- rangular, a bifid impressed line upon the middle ; ocelli large, distant ; prothorax small, semicircular.

Length to tip of wings 12 14 millim. Body 5 to 6 millim. Expanse of wings 22 25 millim.

Hob. Guatirnala (Sivers); Panama (Motschulsky); St. Domingo (Ehrenberg) ; Porto-Rico (Moritz) ; Martinique ; Venezuela (Mo- ritz, Appun) ; Santarem, Brazil (Bates).

Nasuti and workers from Matanzas, Cuba (Osten Sacken), seem to belong here.

3. T. debilis !

Termes debilis Heer ! Insektenfauna der Tertiiirgebilde 11,35, 19; tab. iii, fig. 6 (contained in gum copal). Giebel, Fauna der Vorwelt, II, 295. Termes morio Burm. (in part) II, 767, 11.— T. debilis Hag.! Linn. XII, 205, 38 ; tab. iii, fig. 30.

Brownish-black, antennas annulated with white ; mouth, feet and middle of the venter yellowish ; wings opaque, blackish-gray, costal veins fuseous ; head convex, square, an impressed point upon the middle ; ocelli small, approaching the eyes ; prothorax small, rounded.

Length to tip of wings 8^ millim. Body Si millim. Expanse of wings 16 millim.


Hob. Porto-Rico (Moritz) ; Brazil, Congonhas (Burmeister). Frequently found iu gum copal.

4. T. Rippertii !

Termes Rippertii Rarnb.! Neuropt. 308, 15. Walk.! Catal. 520, 4; Hagen ! Linu. XII, 218, 47 ; tab. ii, fig. 13 ; tab. iii, fig. 32. Linu. XIV, 118. Termes destructor Perty ! Delect. 127; tab. xxv, fig. 9.

Ferrugineous, head piceous, fulvous in front; the antennse, feet, prothorax and abdomen beneath in the middle luteous ; wings opaque, yellowish-gray, costal veins rufous ; head flat, with an impressed line ; eyes very prominent, ocelli close to the eyes ; prothorax semicircular, short.

Length to tip of wings 14 18 rnillim. Body 5 7 niillim. Expanse of wings 27 35 millim.

Hob. Havana, Cuba (Rippert) ; Trinidad (Osten Sacken) ; Ja- maica (Gosse) ; Columbia (Moritz) ; Brazil (Spix) ; Ypanema (Natterer) ; New-Freiburg (Beschke) ; Isle of France ? (Collect. de Selys).

A damaged specimen from Vera Cruz (Salle) seems to belong here.

5. T. lividus !

Termes lividus Burm.! II, 767, 12. Walk. Catal. 515, 13. Hageu ! Linn. XII, 221, 49 ; tab. iii, fig. 33.

Testaceous, the mouth, middle of the prothorax, antennae, feet, and margins of the abdominal segments luteous ; wings opaque, yellowish gray, costal veins rufous ; head small, flat, a small yellow line upon the middle, ocelli large, approaching the eyes ; prothorax almost orbicular.

Length to tip of wings 14 millim. Body 6 millira. Expanse of wings 27 millim.

Hal). Port au Prince, St. Domingo (Ehrenberg).

6. T. armiger !

Termes armiger Motscliulsky ! Etud. Ent. IV, 10. Hagen ! Liun. XII, 228, 52 ; tab. i, fig. 1.

A nasute soldier. Rufous; thorax and feet a little paler ; head pear-shaped, large, anteriorly porrected into a long nose ; mandi- bles ensiform ; prothorax small, anterior lobe narrow, recurved, anterior angles prominent, depressed, posterior margin rounded.

Length of body 6| millim.


Hal. Panama, Obispo (Motschulsky). Imago unknown.

7. T. tennis !

Termes tennis Hagen ! Linn. XII, 231, 57 ; tab. iii, fig. 35.

Pale yellow; head and protborax a little brownish; wings opaque, pale whitish-yellow, the costal veins luteous ; head oblong, convex, a salient point in the middle ; ocelli absent ; prothorax quadrangular.

Length to tip of wings 10 millim. Body 3 millim. Expanse of wings 20 millirn.

Hob. St. Domingo, Port au Prince (Ehrenberg) ; Columbia (Moritz); Brazil (Helm).

The ocelli, which are present in the other species, are absent in this. In other respects it belongs to the genus.


8. T. simplex!

Termes simplex Hag.! Linn. XII, 238, 60 ; tab. iii, fig. 23.

Fulvous, antennae and feet yellowish, wings hyaline, a little roughened, costal veins yellowish ; head rounded, convex, a dis- tinct fovea upon the middle, ocelli small, closely approximate ; prothorax flat, semicircular ; wings with the median nervure ab- sent.

Length to tip of wings 10 millim. Body 5 millim. Expanse of wings 17 millim.

Hub. Cuba (Poeppig).

An anomalous species. Only a single, very much damaged, specimen seen.

9. T. nigriceps.

Termes nigriceps Haldeman, Proceed. Acad. Pliilad. 1853, June, VI, 3G5.— Hag. Linn. XII, 230, 55.

Workers and soldiers nasute ; head blackish-brassy, pyriform, nasute, antennre, feet and body yellow. Length of body 3 millirn. Hob. Western Mexico (Leconte). Unknown to me.

10. T. strenuus !

Termes strenuus Hagen! Linn. XIV, 105.

Fuscous, villose ; mouth, antenna?, feet and margins of the


abdominal segments fulvous ; wings opaque, brown, costal margin, yellow, subcostal and basal veins blackish-brown ; head rather large, opaque, rounded, flat, impressed in the middle, brassy, ocelli rather small, distant ; prothorax semicircular, opaque.

Length to tip of wings 22 25 millim. Body 8 10 millim. Expanse of wings 42 47 millim.

Hob. Yera Cruz, Mexico (Salle).

11. T. fumosus !

Termes fumosus Hagen! Linn. XIV, 123. Perhaps imago of Termes nigriceps.

Blackish-brown, brassy; antennae blackish-brown annulated with pale ; mouth, venter and feet yellowish-brown, tibice a little ob- scure; wings opaque, dark-smoky, costal veins blackish-brown, the rest fuscous; head flat, rounded, anteriorly bi-impressed ; ocelli rather large, distant ; prothorax hardly narrower than the head, semicircular.

Length to tip of wings 14 millim. Body 6 millim. Expanse of wings 24 millim.

Nab. Vera Cruz, Mexico (Salle).

I have seen similar specimens, badly preserved, from Matamoras, Tamaulipas. They may be distinct.


Body depressed, linear; head free; wings equal, mem- branous ; tarsi triarticulate.

I have seen a specimen (perhaps a larva) without wings, not well preserved, from Cuba (Gundlach, Berlin Museum). Pale fuscous. Length of body 4 millim. Belonging to the genus Olyniha ? It is probably a new species.


Body oval ; head free ; prothorax small, obtected ; wings unequal, sometimes wanting ; tarsi two- or three-articulate.


(Lepinotus von Hey den ; Paradoxenus and Paradoxides Motsch.) Ocelli absent ; wings incomplete, coriaceous ; tarsi triarticulate.


1. C. picea!

Paradoxenus piceus Motschulsky ! in lit.

Entirely piceous, with a brassy reflection.

The specimen seen was imperfect ; the wings were wanting.

Length of body 1 millim.

Hab. California.

ATROPOS LEACH. Ocelli and wings absent ; tarsi triarticulate.

1. A. divinatorius.

Termes divinatorius 0. Fab. Fn. Groenl. 214, 181.

Pale, mouth fuscous, eyes black, anus obscure (Descript. from Fab.)

Length 1 millim. ?

Hal. Greenland. In old books. Perhaps it is A. pulsatorius Leach.


Three ocelli; wings membranaceous, rather unequal; tarsi two- or three-articulate.

•j- Tarsi three-articulate.

* Discoidal cellule closed, quadrangular.

1. P. sparsus !

Psocus sparsus Hagen !

Fuscous, varied with yellow and white ; nasus lineated with grayish-fuscous, front yellow, punctured and lineated with black ; antenna? rather slender, pale ; the two basal joints thicker, yel- low, black at base ; thorax fuscous, varied with yellow ; femora fuscous, annulated with pale before the apex, tibite and tarsi pale, with the apex fuscous ; anterior wings opaque, fuscous, densely varied with yellow and gray, veins yellow, spotted with fuscous ; pterostigma triangular ; posterior wings a little smoky, costal margin at the apex interruptedly fuscous and yellow.

Length to tip of wings G millim. Expanse of anterior wings 11 millim.

Hal). Washington (Osten Sacken, 1858) ; Baltimore (Uhler).


2. P. lugens !

Psocus lugens Hagen !

Fuscous, varied with white ; nasus fuscous, lineatecl with gray ; front fuscous, occiput striated with whitish ; antennce rather slen- der, brownish, two basal articulations thicker, apex pale, setce with the apical articulations whitish; thorax fuscous, margined with white ; femora fuscous, annulated with pale before the apex; tibia? and tarsi paler, at the apex fuscous ; anterior wings opaque, fuscous, densely varied with gray, margin and veins marked with white points ; pterostigma triangular ; posterior wings a little smoky, costal margin at the apex interruptedly white